Discussion Questions, Unit II Continued

  • What were the seven liberal arts? Would you agree that a well-rounded person should be *at least* proficient in all seven?
  • Why was the Council at Nicea in 787 important?
  • How did the feudal system work?
  • Why (or How) are the works of the female author Dhuoda significant?
  • How did medieval Islam influence the West?
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47 responses to “Discussion Questions, Unit II Continued

  1. Richard Robinette

    The seven liberal arts consisted of grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. I do feel that a well-rounded person should have a little more than a basic knowledge of all these arts. However I do not feel that one should be proficient in all to be considered well-rounded. A doctor for example is well-rounded in all the medical fields by doing different internships during medical school, however they would be proficient in the actual field that they choose to be in.

  2. Richard Robinette

    The Council of Nicaea in 787 was important because it allowed sacred art or images to be passed along and represent this time period of the middle ages. Thedulf of Orleans wrote the book of King Charles Against the Synod, which rasied arguements for and against images at Nicaea in 787. It was found that these images would be allowed for commemoration or decoration and heretical to worship in Charlemagne.Thedulf was a key member of the Carolingian Renaissance.

  3. Susie

    The feudal system happened once William became king of England. He decided that he was going to be the one to govern the country. If the English nobles decided to keep their estates they would be more powerful than him. He was worried they would try to overthrow him. He then promised land to his supporters. His supporters also had duties to perform that was called the Feudal System. When they were given land they had to swear to the to the lord who was giving it. That was called “doing homage.” The barons or bishops was called “tenants-in-chief. They provided knights. These “tenants-in-chief” agreed to fight in wars or guard castles for their lords. The knights became known as “under-tenants because they agreed to fight when asked. The land was distributed to the newly conquered England.

  4. Brittany Wilkerson

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric(logic), dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. These arts were part of the curriculum in Carolingian schools. I do not believe that a well-rounded person should need to be proficient in all of the arts. I think that the most important for one to excel in would be grammar, dialectic, and arithmetic. Those are the arts that are used in everyday life to survive.
    The Council at Nicea in 787 was formed by Irene, the mother of Constantine VI. The Council at Nicea was important because it restored the veneration of icons. This meant that people could kiss icons or approach them with candles and incense and carry them around as protection against demons or illness.
    Dhuoda was a laywoman from Rhineland who married a Frankish count from southern France. She wrote a maunal for his son, William, which urged him to attend to religious duties, honor family members, and learn the ways of the court. Dhuoda used fine Latin style in her prose and verse which was significant for her lack of education.

  5. Tammy Hurt

    The seven liberal arts were divided into the Trivium and the Quadrivium. The Trivium consisted of Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic, while the quadrivium consisted of Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy. I think in order for a person to be well rounded they should be proficient in the majority of liberal arts. However, I myself think that if you do not have the ability to reason with logic, you have nothing. Grammar, Arithmetic and Logic are no doubt required to be well rounded. A person can have all the book sense, but without logic one can not survive this day and time. I myself would prefer to have logic than book sense. At least with logic you can reason by elimination.

  6. Tammy Hurt

    The Council of Nicea of 787 was important so they could restore the dishonoring of holy images which had been stopped by the Imperial Edict within the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III. It was decided that as the sacred cross was everywhere as a symbol that also should the images of Jesus Christ, Virgin Mary, and the holy angels as well as the saints be honored.

  7. Tammy Hurt

    The works of Dhouda is significant because it showed what she had learned from the Scripture, from other written books and from her own experiences in life and creating a statement of what the active moral life of an aristocratic family should be. Unable to influence her children due to her husband taking the children from her, she wrote this handbook for William to use as a guide in his own life and teaching his younger brother.

  8. Tammy Hurt

    The feudal system came into action when William became king. He did not want his nobles to keep their estates because he felt they would feel powerful and might try to overthrow him. They had to make room for William’s supporters which he had promised land too. He rewarded his supporters but they also had duties they had to perform. William would give land to his supporters, which become tenants in chief, who agreed to provide knights for 40 days a year, they in turn would give land to the knights who became lords and they served in the army for 40 days a year. The lords then in turn gave land to the peasants who promised services or payments to the lords in return.

  9. Tammy Hurt

    Medieval Islam was a a religion of remarkable tolerance. They allowed Jews and Christians the right to practice their inherited beliefs and setting an example which was not copied for many centuries. Not only did Muslim Spain gather and preserve the intellectual content of ancient
    Greek and Roman civilizations. It interpreted and expanded on that civilization and made a vital contribution in science, astronomy, mathematics, algebra, law, history, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, music, agriculture and theology. Islam nurtured and preserved the quest for learning,.

  10. Richard Robinette

    Dhuoda was a laywoman who wrote a manual of advice to her son. Her son was taken by his father to the Frankish court. She writes in fine Latin style that shows command in her prose and verse. The instructions are nothing uncommon in that she instructs him to hold true to his religious beliefs, show honor towards family members and learn the ways of the Frankkish court. What makes her writing unique is that they are the only ones from her era that were recovered.

  11. Shannon Tucker

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. I think a well-rounded person doesn’t have to be proficient in all of these. I myself am not proficient a couple of these. I think a well-rounded person should have knowledge of the seven liberal arts but doesn’t have to proficient in all.
    There was debate on how Jesus could be God and the Father, because of this the Council at Nicea in 787 was adapted. Yes it was important. It gave reasoning and guidance as to why and how Jesus could be all three at one time. The first council was held by Constantine. They also decided when Easter should be celebrated because this was the most important holiday.
    The feudal system was government obligations between lords/kings and vassal. Lords/kings gave protection to the vassal and nobles promised to remain loyal to the kings. The nobles were to never to confront the king and were at the kings mercy. There were very few nobles; most were selfs, who were under the nobles.
    A lot is unknown about Dhuoda, but what is known is that she was a female writer. She was a laywoman that wrote a manual for her son. It was a book of advice. She was married to a Frankish count that was on the Frankish court. She was best known for her fine latin style in prose and verse.

  12. Beth Buechler

    The seven liberal arts was the curriculum of ancient carrolingian schools. It was canonized by Martianus Capella in the marriage of Mercury and Philogy in the late 15th century. The arts were grammer, rhetoric, dialectic (logic), arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Yes, I do believe that inorder for a person to be well-rounded that they should be proficient in all of the above subjects. These are all important subjects.
    The council at Nicea in 787 was important because it called the council to address the controversy about iconoclastic holy images. There was a forbidden worship of icons that had started in 726. The end decision was that the icons could be honored just not actually worshipped.
    The feudal system is all about understanding the relationships between the lords and the vassals. The lords had private and public power, which led to there being problems with having too many lords that did not all serve productively. The vassals, usually only men, were very loyal to the lords, kind of like servants. The vassals may give the lords advice and could also perform military services. The lords were agreeable to keep the vassals safe and usually also provided them with material items such as the following: land, money, or housing. The lords and vassals in this society were trained to fight. it was usually more directed against the pagans and infidels. Sometimes, a vassal had to fight another vassal.
    Medievel Islam highly influenced the west bymaking huge leaps into medicine; to the humanities such as math and history and philosophy); and technology. One example was them being so knowledgeable about medicines. When Muhammad Al-Razi set the standard as a doctor he had written a book about his own findings and also included some of the greek traditions. He also wrote a book about diseases in children. He was considered and titled “the Father of Pediatrics”. These books, after being translated into Latin, were soon being used in western medical schools.

  13. Carrie Priest

    The feudal system was a relationship between the lords and vassals. The vassals promised to their lords that they would give them respect and fidelity. The vassals would give them military service and legal advice. The lords would give the vassals housing, money, or land in return. In addition, the lords would protect their vassals against the attacks and judicial troubles. Most of vassals were men and they were trained to fight. The lords and vassal stuck together and really did help one another.
    Dhuoda was a laywoman, a Hrotsvitha, a nun. There is a lot about Dhuoda that is unknown. However she was a noblewoman and a Frankish count. She did write a manual of advice to his son. Dhuoda had a fine Latin style in her prose and verse. She knew the Bible very well. Only Dhuoda’s writing has been recovered in her era and that is why her work is so significant.
    The seven liberal arts are grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It would be good for a person to be proficient in all seven arts, but I don’t think that they have to be. Some people are strong in certain liberal arts than others and there is nothing wrong with that. No one is the same and not all people are going to be proficient in all liberal arts. I do believe that a well-round person should know a little about all seven liberal arts, but don’t have to be proficient.

  14. Carrie Priest

    The seven liberal arts are grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It would be good for a person to be proficient in all seven arts, but I don’t think that they have to be. Some people are strong in certain liberal arts than others and there is nothing wrong with that. No one is the same and not all people are going to be proficient in all liberal arts. I do believe that a well-round person should know a little about all seven liberal arts, but don’t have to be proficient.
    The feudal system was a relationship between the lords and vassals. The vassals promised to their lords that they would give them respect and fidelity. The vassals would give them military service and legal advice. The lords would give the vassals housing, money, or land in return. In addition, the lords would protect their vassals against the attacks and judicial troubles. Most of vassals were men and they were trained to fight. The lords and vassal stuck together and really did help one another.
    Dhuoda was a laywoman, a Hrotsvitha, a nun. There is a lot about Dhuoda that is unknown. However she was a noblewoman and a Frankish count. She did write a manual of advice to his son. Dhuoda had a fine Latin style in her prose and verse. She knew the Bible very well. Only Dhuoda’s writing has been recovered in her era and that is why her work is so significant.

  15. Peggy Reynolds

    The liberal arts were divided into the Tritium and the Quadrivium. Trivium means “the tree roads” and the Quadrivium means “the four roads.” The Trivium consists of grammar, rhetoric, and logic. The Quadrivium consists of arithmetic, geometry, music, harmonics, tuning theory, and astronomy or cosmology. I think a well-round person should be proficient in all seven of the liberal arts.
    During the Middle Ages, Feudalism was the law of the land. It was the basis by which the upper nobility class maintained control over the lower class. This rigid structure of government consisted of kings, lords, and the peasants.

  16. Peggy Reynolds

    I think that the seven liberal arts are very important to the deveploment of children. Grammmer, rhetoric, and logic are taught in school but also need to be taught at home. Arithmetic, geometry, music, harmonics, tuning theory, astronomy and cosmology are taught in school also and these are not as easy to teach at home. Many parents might not know everything to teach their children.

  17. Sydney Hoffman

    The Feudal System…
    The term feudalism can be used in a variety of ways. It can describe a type of government that has shared authorities. It can also be described as a relationship between men that are somehow connected whether personally or materially. Feudalism is also described as the “exploitation of the peasantry by the nobility”. The feudal system is a hard concept to fully grasp because of its many interpretations. This is what I took from the readings about the feudal system. The Feudal System ties in government between the lords and the vassals. They had a type of agreement that the lord would take care and protect the vassal, and in return the vassal would stay with the lord and “acknowledge their allegiance” to the lord.

    -Sydney Hoffman

  18. Jimmy Combs

    The seven liberal arts pursued in the classical world were divided into two categories. The first category, known as the “Trivium” (the three roads), consisted of grammar, rhetoric, and logic. The second category, known as the “Quadrivium” (the four roads), consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. Pythagoras, Plato and St. Augustine each played important roles in forming the liberal arts. I do not think one has to be proficient in all seven to be considered a well-rounded person. As a matter of fact, I think you would have to be a genius of extraordinary proportions to be proficient in all of the liberal arts. I think most people are either proficient in the trivium or the quadrivium, not both.

  19. Jimmy Combs

    The feudal system was a system of governing by the king in which land was granted to his supporters with the understanding that certain duties were expected in return. Large estates (known as fiefs) were given to the kings friends and family, in return, the noble who were granted the fiefs swore an oath of loyalty to the king, also know as “doing homage”. The people who worked the land for the noble were peasants known as “serfs”. The serfs were bound to the land, if it was sold, so were the serfs. The knights of the feudal system promised to serve in the king’s military for a period of time during the year. Then the nobles, barons, and bishops helped provide the knights with supplies, advice, and a place to stay in order to serve in the king’s military. This system was practiced throughout most of Western Europe by the twelfth century.

  20. Tracey Tyson

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. These seven liberal arts are achievable for a well rounded person during that time period to accomplish. These arts were preparing young men to become successful in business and being able to communicate with trades. These arts prepared them to be able to become great leaders in their field of interest. Although, music may not be of great interest to many today it was a way of communicating ones belief during this era.
    In conclusion, I do believe that a well rounded person can achieve these seven liberal arts.

  21. Amber Franzell

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic,geometry, astronomy, and music. I would have to agree that a well rounded person would have to be proficient in all seven of these.However, someone to know at least a few of them can always go back and learn the others. Some of these are common since to some people but for others they may struggle to learn them in that time period. Although if someone does not know all seven liberal arts, does not mean they cant learn them, and become well rounded.

    The feudal system worked with the lords and the vassals that built a relationship between the two. Them being two different leaders and or groups, but helped each other at the same time. The lords were those who held both public and private power in their hands. They could be kings, or self-serving regional leaders who profited from the breakup of the Carolingian Empire ( page 234). The vassals on the other hand were the retainers of lords, swore homage and fealty to a lord, and promised aid and counsel (page 234). In other words the vassals would give the lords military services and legal advice. While the lords would protect the vassals against judicial troubles or attacks from others. The vassals helping the lords like they agreed the lords would provide them with material value such as clothing and weapons, housing, money, or land.

  22. Nicholas Reichert

    Medieval Islam influenced the Western civilization in many ways including; architecture, literature, technology, music, mathematics, and medicine. The Islamic intellectuals and inventors made some major advances in these fields during the ninth to twelfth centuries. In architecture, Islam’s invention of the pointed arch is what made the Gothic style possible. In medicine, Muslim doctors were superior to those in Western civilizations. Islamic doctors used the process of observation and experimentation to cure diseases. Muhammad al-Razi was an important doctor in the field of medicine during medieval Islamic age. He wrote a book about medicine that describes what measles and smallpox is and the difference between the two. This information was very influential in the Western medicine practices. In the music field many Islamic instruments were adopted into Western culture. The instruments that were adopted are from the string group of instruments, the wind group, and percussion group. A few examples of these are the lute, guitar, flute, reed pipe, and tambourines. In mathematics algebra and other mathematical concepts were used in Western curriculum. Lastly, Muslims made technological advances in papermaking, hydraulics, and in mechanical engineering. There were many developments and advances during the medieval Islamic times. The Islamic scholars often worked with Western European scholars during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by oral communication. Furthermore, they worked together to translate the accumulated knowledge into Latin and use the information in medieval Europe’s schools and universities.

  23. Dana Settle

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. These are all very important to know and learn but I don’t necessarily think that you need to be proficient in ALL of these fields to be considered a well-rounded person. I think that back in the era of the Carolingian Renaissance maybe it was important to be proficient in every area of the liberal arts, but I don’t think that is the case today. I do however think that all of these areas should still be taught in today’s curriculum.

  24. Dana Settle

    The Council at Nicea in 787 was important because they restored the veneration of icons. Emperor Leo the third believed that icons were blasphemous and that they violated the biblical prohibition of graven images. So because the Council venerated icons it now made it possible for citizens to kiss and even approach icons. It also made it possible for citizens to actually carry their own small icons around with them to protect them from demons and illness.
    Dhuoda was a laywomen who married a Frankish count from the south of France. She was most known for a manual of advice that she wrote for her son William. This manual was just urge William to honor his family, be religious, and learn the ways of the court. Dhuoda had not written anything that was very original but her writings were the only ones out of all the other laywomen that had ever been recovered.
    The feudal system to me pretty much seems to be an agreement between Lords and Vassals. The lords were the ones who held private and public power and the vassals were the retainers of the lords. The vassals provided aid and counsel and swore homage and fealty to a lord. The vassals were by the lords side to to give acknowledgement of allegiance, to give advice, whether its private advice, or publicly in a hall or court. The lords in return would protect their vassals from judicial troubles and also have been known to provide their vassals with material possessions such as clothing, weapons, money, and housing.
    Medieval Islam influenced the west with direct influence in architecture, literature, mathematics, philosophy, music and technology. The pointed arch that came from Islams legacy is what made the Gothic architectural style possible. The Islams also contributed to the strings, winds and the percussion groups of music. They also had some indirect influences on the west by conveying legacies from other cultures.

  25. Diona Scott

    The feudal system, which was a type of government with shared, segmented power and authority. Lords held both public and private powers and owned the land; they gave the vassals control of the land. Vassals have peasants work the land, which is called fiefs. Each vassal was the retainer of the lord and swore allegiance to the lord. There were peasants who could occupy and live on the land, but they had to work the land. The peasants worked most of the day, men and women side by side. They also lived in wooden huts, reared their children, and found relief in the church’s holy days. Peasant men were expected to fight in times of war and they had to pay taxes to their lord, which consisted of animals, food, etc.

  26. Diona Scott

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. I don’t personally agree that in order to be a well-rounded person you should be proficient in at least all seven arts. The reason for this belief is because although these are all nice things to be knowledgeable in, I feel that there are other areas that one could be proficient in that would be a better fit for a well-rounded person. I do believe grammar is necessary for a person to be well-rounded because it is centered around language, speaking, and communication. Rhetoric, I feel is great for public speakers however for an everyday well-rounded person, it is not necessary. Dialectic, is still centered around language and speech with could be lumped together with grammar and rhetoric, except it is formal logic. Arithmetic is definitely needed to be a well-rounded person because it is the basis for mathematics. Geometry, although it is a form of math, I feel it is not necessary. Astronomy was used for navigation, however not necessary. Music is great for musicians and artists but not necessary. Overall these things are great, but not required to make a well-rounded individual.

  27. The seven liberal arts that were taught in the Carolingian schools were divided into two categories the trivium and the quadrivium. The trivium which were grammar,rhetoric, and dialectic and the quadrivium being arithmetic,geometry, astronomy, and music. I believe that any well-rounded individual should have at least a good knowledge of each of these. I think also that some subject such as astronomy were more useful and important in that era than it is now. Due to the fact they used astronomy more for their travels, and everyday life than we do. The most important of the seven liberal arts in our society I believe is arithmetic,grammar, and logic. In order to survive we need to be proficient in all three of those areas. The other areas are more to be just a well-rounded, educated individual.

  28. Serrandon Alexander

    The seven liberal arts were divided into two categories. The first being Trivium which mean “three roads.” Which just basically meant that there were three ways of learning. These three ways included Grammer, Rhetoric, and logic. The other category was Quadrvium also known as “the four roads.” Of learning that is…….LOL This category consisted of Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astronomy. Like many others I too feel that having knowledge of all areas would make you well-rounded as well as proficient. However, since times have changed and what was once imporant then is not as important now.

    Serrandon Alexander

  29. Amber Franzell

    Medieval Islam Influenced the west with a few different things such as literature, mathematics, architecture, philosophy, music, and technology. Medicine helped influence the west and had a big roll for the Medieval Islam because the Muslim doctors were more experienced then the west. Islamic medicine had a practical approach to the curing of diseases using the technique of observation and experimentation. In Muslim culture music had been a controversial topic. The music used for many different cultures in Islam was divided into a couple different groups. These groups included the string group, the pandore, the psaltery, the harp, and many other instruments depending on the tradition. Technology is important to us now, as it was for the Islamic including the science and philosophy. Technology advanced in three different parts in Medieval Muslim this included paper making, Hydraulics, and Mechanical Engineering. Paper making originated in China. Hydraulics is the branch of engineering concerned with water flow and the use of liquids to power machines. The mechanical engineering was worked two different areas one was used as daily life such as pumps and the other was working machines designed to control fountains and clocks. Over all of these things that Medieval Islam done or had influenced the west.

  30. Chancelor White

    The seven liberal arts are grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. On the other note, I do not think that a well rounded person should be required to be at least proficient at all seven of the liberal arts. The reason being that just because you are weaker at one does not mean that you are not well rounded. That is like saying that a person that is proficient at painting and drawing but have a little trouble with sculpting is not a well rounded person. It’s just not always certain.

  31. The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. These are all very important to know and learn and you should be at least proficient in all seven. The Council at Nicea in 787 important because they restored the veneration of icons. Emperor Leo the third believed that icons were blasphemous and that they violated the biblical prohibition of graven images. So because the Council venerated icons it now made it possible for citizens to kiss and even approach icons. It also made it possible for citizens to actually carry their own small icons around with them to protect them from demons and illness. The best way to understand feudalism is to examine the honorable, mutual relationships between lords and vassals. Lords were those who held both public and private power in their hands. They could be kings, or the powerful local officers of kings, or self-serving regional leaders who profited from the breakup of the Carolingian Empire. Dhuoda, a laywoman little is known about her except she is a noble women from the Rhineland, she married a frankish count from the south of france. In the 840’s she wrote a manual of advice for her son William to attend to religious duties, honor family members and learn the ways of the court.Of perhaps greater interest, the book shows Dhouda in command of fine latin style in her prose and verse. She knew the bible, and also several texts by church fathers, extremely well. Surely, Dhuoda’s learning and writing ability were not unique to laywomen in her era, but only her’s were recovered.Medieval Islam influenced the west with direct influence in architecture, literature, mathematics, philosophy, music and technology. The pointed arch that came from Islams legacy is what made the Gothic architectural style possible. The Islams also contributed to the strings, winds and the percussion groups of music. They also had some indirect influences on the west by conveying legacies from other cultures.

  32. Nicholas Reichert

    The way feudalism worked is a lord would own and control his land, which was called a fief. Then, the lord would attract warriors that were called vassals, by providing them with estates on the fief. The lord and the vassals would sign a written agreement to each other that stated their mutual duties and obligations to one another. The vassals would become soldiers in the lord’s personal army and live an aristocratic lifestyle in exchange for protecting the lord and the fief. Furthermore, the vassals would sit as counsel in the lord’s court. The fief was comprised of land, manor houses, and serfs who worked the land. The feudal system restored law and order to Western Europe, but the vassals and serfs were often exploited by the lord in the process. This led to conflicts between the lord and his vassals, which often resulted in a civil war.
    The feudal system granted protection from invaders but caused war between rival estates. Some feudal lords expanded into a larger kingdom by subduing weaker ones through marriages with the conquered family. The problem that these feudal lords faced was to keep a centralized rule, so their kingdom wouldn’t break up into separate, warring states. There were four feudal monarchies that dominated Western Europe: French, English, Holy Roman, and the papacy. The Papal monarchy was similar to the European monarchies, except that is was a universal state ruled by the popes under God’s law. These feudal monarchies lasted until about 1300, when feudalism no longer served its original purpose and was changed to a different political, social, and economic form.

  33. charletta smith

    The seven liberal arts were music, astronomy, rhetoric, dialectic, geometry, arithmetic, and grammar. I believe that I am a pretty well rounded person and I don’t know a whole lot about all of the seven liberal arts but if I was asked to explain one of them I could because I know what they are, however if I was given a test on each of them I probably wouldn’t know every answer, I would most likely get a passing grade on them. I hope that makes sense to you all and that you understand what I am trying to say.  I do think that to be a well – rounded individual you would need to know enough about all seven to succeed in life. Out of the seven I think dialectic, arithmetic, and grammar are the most important ones; you would need to know more about those than the others because the majority of us use them on a daily basis. Music, astronomy, rhetoric, and geometry are also important however, I think for the most part nearly any one uses them every single day like we do the others.
    The Council at Nicaea in 787 was important because it was the second council of Nicaea and it was to address the Iconoclastic Controversy. The controversy started over Leo III forbidding icon worship, so the council’s decision was that icons would be worthy of veneration and devotion just not worship.
    The feudal system was made up of duties and rewards. King William had supporters and they were Promised Land for helping him out so the way the feudal system works is King William granted land to the tenants in chief who promised William they’d provide knights for 40 days a year for the army. Tenants then granted land to the knights in exchange for their promise to serve in the army 40 days. The knights would grant land to the peasants who had promised the knights services and payments.
    Dhuoda’s work was the only one written by a female that survived through the Carolingian period. She had wrote things that were important to everyone like raising children, the important role a father has, how Christianity helped the Frankish nobility, insights to education for women, and society.
    The medieval influenced the west because the inventors and the intellectuals, and the scholars helped the west get farther in medicine, humanities, math, philosophy, history, and in technology. In medicine alone the Islam’s progressed in ophthalmology, diet treatments and they also added more medications. A few examples of that are Muhammad al-razi was named father of pediatrics because of the medical encyclopedia and treating young kids with diseases. As far as history goes Ibn Rushad and Ibn Sina were very educated in medicine, metaphysics, theology, and religion. The medieval civilization made several improvements to technological: The paper making, hydraulics, and mechanical engineering.

    Charletta Smith

  34. Nicole Durbin

    The Trivium consisted of Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic, while the quadrivium consisted of Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy. I don’t believe this making for a very well round person because to be well rounded you also need common sense and personality which no one can teach you. I understand they wanted to try to make everyone the best person possible and wanted everyone to be their best but there is a lot more to that then what is in today’s world required courses for different majors. I don’t think this is fair because different people like different things and tend to do better in subject that we enjoy. Just because you aren’t great in each of this subjects does not mean that you are not smart and a well-rounded person. I do believe that you should know a little about each of this because it will help you in the everyday life and give you information that makes you seem a little civilized but not everyone is strong when it comes to academics.
    The federal system in this time is a lot alike but as a lot different than what we use today. The king had the final say, pretty much and today the president does, but the people still have a voice. I don’t completely believe that people toady have a large enough voice to stop certain things, but we still have a voice. The Kings job was to try to protect his people and his land but also doing what was best for everyone in a whole, which could be killing someone who was threading the happiness and safety of the kingdom. The Knight was second to the King and was a military leader. We still have those today but out military leaders are not seen as that important to many people in today’s society because they are not seen every day like they were in the towns riding their horse. Then you had the common people, who are the average citizen who works and provides for their family. Under them are the serfs which would be like slaves. Work on the land and are sold with the land. They were very important at this time because they lived of the land and without serfs people could not make money or survive.

    Nicole Durbin

  35. Shari Blair

    The seven liberal arts are Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry,
    Music, Harmonics, or Tuning Theory, Astronomy and Cosmology. I agree that a well rounded person should be at least proficient in all seven. Emperor Constantine was able to consolidate his power with the help of the Christians in his army. He saw Christianity as a potential force for unity in his empire. However, Christianity could never unify the Roman Empire if it was not in itself united. What happened was that the king was at the top and then the nobles were given land that was split up so they could’t start a rebellion and the nobles gave their land to lots of knights which gave there land to lots of peasants which farmed the land and paid taxes. The knights fought and the king gave the noble more land so that he was richer more land=richer you are! this kind of system was based on kept promises. If some promises were not kept the entire system fails. For example say a king gives 12 lords land to have in return for service. The lord promises to give the king knights to protect him. but if only six lord keep the promise than the king isn’t as well protected and therefore has a chance to die. Female author Dhuoda significant Frankenstien. It reconciled relgion with Aristotle’s philosophy.

  36. Chancelor White

    The seven liberal arts are grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. I do not think that a well-rounded person should be required to be at least proficient in all seven of the liberal arts, the reason being that just because you are weaker at one of the arts does not mean that they are not well-rounded. That is like saying that a person that is proficient at painting and drawing is not well-rounded because they are not as good at sculpting. Although, I do believe that some of the liberal arts should not be ignored. I think that grammar is important because a well-rounded person should be able to speak correctly, and have good communication skills. A lot of the seven liberal arts kind of tie together with each other or not necessarily the most important, such as rhetoric and dialect. I feel like they all sort of tie around language and speaking. Now I do believe arithmetic should be required because I think that everyone should know a little bit of math and know how to use them. Although geometry is a form of math I do not think this should be required to be proficient in because when I think of geometry I think of shapes, sizes, spaces, and positions. You should know the art but not specifically proficient. Astronomy, again, is not as important but should have knowledge in. I do not see what the huge need for navigation would be. Finally there is music. I think that it is a cool thing to be able to be proficient in but it is not necessarily required. I’m pretty sure a lot of the world is not musically talented but they are doing fine.

  37. Chancelor White

    The reason that the Council at Nicea in 787 was important is because Constantine VI persuaded a number of bishops to write against icons. Then his mother, Irene which was serving as a regent for her son, convoked a counsel and restored the veneration of icons. Now, people could kiss icons or approach them with candles and incense and carry them as protection against demons or illness.

  38. Johnny Stuckey

    The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Yes, I do agree that a well-rounded person should be at LEAST proficient in all seven arts. However, I do also feel that a person may have stronger areas than others.
    The arts were divided into the Quadrivium and Trivium. The Quadrivium consisted of Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy while the Trivium consisted of Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic. I do feel that a person would be stronger in one versus another. Not everyone is equally rounded, but one must be logical to even be considered well rounded.
    Johnny Stuckey

  39. Melissa Kendrick

    The seven liberal arts of the clasical period could be divided into 2 parts. The Trivium, which contained, grammar, rhetoric,and logic. These wee considerd also as the core or of the arts. The other part was the Quandrium and contained ,arithmetic, geometry,music and lastly astronomy/cosmolgy or astronmy. One of the earliest known authors to demonstrate in this era would be that of the Greek, Homer. Modern day translates these into math, science, arts and language.
    In my opinion a well rounded person has experienced a variety of things in life and is able to conform according to what the situation is in front of them with confidence and knowledge and possibly experience. Does this mean that I feel a person should be “at least profeccient” in all seven areas? Well, Id at least say experienced in some with desire to learn and become more profecienient in others, if not all. Also, I will say I think it takes a person with that much ambition to form and give an opinion that is considered in the least bit, well rounded.
    To answer the question about the significance of the second council meeting of Nicea.. If it weren’t for that 2nd meeting we would not have the imagery of the churches that we have today. They would have been done away with long ago.

  40. The seven liberal arts were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. I think as long as someone has a basic knowledge about each area, then that would consider them to be well-rounded. I don’t feel like it is needed to be distinguished in all areas in order to be well-rounded. Being educated in these areas are not as beneficial as they were then, and they are not taught in school like they use to be. Music and art is still available throughout our kids basic education, but not much else until you reach college. Even in college, these are limited in their availability. Is this a good thing? Probably not. Being knowledgeable in these viewed you as being a very educated individual.

  41. Dhuoda was a common woman who lived in 935-975. She was significant because she was a noble woman who knew the Bible very well and she quoted it in a manual of advice that she made for her husbands son, William. Other than the fact that she was a layperson and a nun, little else is know about her. Although her writing and learning ability was not unique for women of her time, but for some reason hers was the only one discovered. She obviously was very educated and strong in her beliefs. The manual she wrote for William talked about how she should tend to religious duties, honor family members, and learn the ways of the court.

  42. The feudal system or feudalism are other words to describe the medieval social and political practices. Explaining the feudal system is difficult because there are several ways to explain it. It can be described as a government with segmented shared power and authority; relationships bound together in personal and material ways; or exploitation of peasantry be nobility. Although none of those explain it as a whole, the best way to explain it is by the relationships between the vassals and lords. Lords held the power, and the vassals swore homage and loyalty. Vassals were allowed to offer advice, but it was the lords ultimate decision. If the vassals did their duty, then the lords would protect and support them.

  43. The Council at Nicea in 787 was formed by Irene, the mother of Constantine VI. This was of great important because it restored the veneration of icons. Meaning that people could kiss icons or approach them with candles and incense and carry them around for protection against illness or demons. This of course was highly frowned upon by Emperor Leo III. The Council at Nicea in 787 also allowed sacred art or images to be passed along and therefore represent the time period of the middle ages. It was later found that these images would be allowed for commemoration and heretical to worship in Charlemagne. It was also important because they could restore the dishonoring of holy images which had been stopped by the Imperial Edict. It was decided then that with as important as the sacred cross was, along with the image of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the holy angels that they must be honored and were allowed to be displayed all over to display their importance. Emperor Leo III believed that icons were blasphemous and that they violated the biblical prohibition of graven images. Emperor Leo III lost in the end.

  44. B. Abrams

    The seven liberal arts taught in Carolingian schools was the same that had been taught in the schools of antiquity. They were grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Grammar was learning skills in Latin which was indeed important at that time because the church, and legal systems still used Latin in their proceedings. Rhetoric was more about the ability to identify and write figures of speech than about speaking well so I would say it was less important during this age. Dialectic was formal logic and I think you would do fairly well in any subject if you were proficient in logical thinking. Arithmetic is a subject everyone should be proficient in, and geometry and astronomy as well in that time period. Music is something to be enjoyed, but in my opinion not necessary for everyone to be proficient in. So in my opinion it is nice to have a varied education but not necessary to be proficient in all areas.
    Emperor Leo the 3rd believed icons to be blasphemous. His son Constantine the 5th convinced a number of bishops to write against icons.Irene who was serving as regent to her son Constantine the 6th disagreed with this and convoked a council at Nicaea in 787 which restored the veneration of icons meaning that people could kiss icons or pack them around with them.
    The feudal system was based on those who fight and those who work. It involved honorable relationships, sworn fealty, and homage between Lords and Vassals. Lords could be Kings, powerful local officers of Kings, or regional leaders. Vassals were the retainers of Lords that swore homage which was a public acknowledgment of allegiance, and fealty which is the promise of loyalty, and promised aid usually in the form of military service,and counsel to the Lords. The Lords promised judicial protection and military aid if attacked by others, and some form of material aid usually land. The vassals were knights or provided knights to fight. Those that work were the peasants and serfs they gave a portion of what they raised to the Lords.
    The works of Dhuoda were of significance because hers were the only works recovered from her time. She was learned and had a fine command of Latin, she was well versed in the bible and several other texts by church fathers.She wrote a manual of advise to her son because she could not be with him as he grew up away from her.
    Medieval Islam influenced many aspects of the West. The pointed arch of Gothic style architecture, the string, wind and percussion groups of musical instruments, as well as poetic forms and themes that inspired love poems were some of the influences of medieval Islam. Algebra and other math concepts and a pump with suction pipes which is used in steam engines also came from medieval Islam. They also passed along translations from other cultures preserving much of the knowledge of past cultures.

  45. Julia Pike

    The seven liberal arts that were taught in the Carolingian schools were: 1-grammar (acquisition of basic skills in Latin), 2-rhetoric (ability to identify and write figures of speech), 3-dialectic (logic), 4-arithmetic and 5-geometry (mesuring, doing sums, building), 6-astronomy (navigation as well as astronomy), and 7-music (science of music). As our textbooks tells us learning those liberal arts seem to have been particularly effective in raising gifted and smart people. In our day and time I think that those liberal arts are still important and interesting. I also think though that some of them, like astronomy are not as important now as it was before (we now have GPS 🙂 )

  46. Julia Pike

    Dhuoda’s works are significant because they show that she was well educated, she uses a fine Latin style and knew the bible as well as texts from church fathers. She was probably not the only laywoman of her time able to write in this way but she was the only one whose work was found.

  47. The fedual system began once William became king of England. He had to decide how he was going to govern and rule his country. William was very firm with not wanting the old english nobles to keep their estated. He thought that if they were able to keep their estates, it would only make them more powerful and more likely to overthrow him. Williams supporters had originally been promised land in return of helping him gain power however he was very careful not to just give land away. When he awarded his supporters, he made them perform duties as well. This new system of duties and awards was called the “Fedual System”. The fedual system provided distributing the land of newly conquered England. William could
    have a large army whenever he like, without the expense of keeping soldiers at his royal court. Healso made sure that his supporters were rewarded, and the same time stayed loyal to him.

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