Discussion Questions, Unit III

  1. Describe the status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy.
  2. Describe the Venetian school of Renaissance painting.
  3. In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier , what are the roles of men and women and their social relations?
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38 responses to “Discussion Questions, Unit III

  1. Susie McReynolds

    Venice was a republic during the Renaissance. Venice also controlled land in Italy. It was actually a empire. Venice had to support art and artists. It was the most important school in Italy. Venice enjoyed periods of importance and influence in the continuum of western European art, but in each period the outstanding Venetian characteristic has remained constant, a love of light and colour.

  2. Peggy Reynolds

    The status of women during the early renaissance in Italy was not great but better than it ever had been. Women had a little more education not much. They were sometimes allowed to exchange ideas and discuss philosophical ideal in court with leaders. Women had more said in their lives. When young women came to marry age, the man going to marry her; would have to pay a dowry. One of the reasons women were more educated was to give cultural matters on educating their sons for their predestined roles as head of the family business and their daughters as loyal housewives and successful household managers.
    Civic humanism was Italian renaissance ideal. Where the educated citizens served as administrators and civil servants in their cities, this was inspired by the period’s classical reveal. They set up a citywide medical health board, to deal with health issues, for example the plague. They were able to work together to deal with different problems and sometimes solve issues. A proponent of the idea that an educated citizenry enhanced the civic community.
    I believe that Machiavelli’s The Prince is a great example of the High Renaissance literacy style. It is a closely-observed human figure, who looks not only noble but educated.
    The Venetian school of Renaissance painting was used as a form of trading. They would create works of art and trade them for thing they need, it was like currency. Even painting on ceiling could be used this way because you would get something in exchange for you work. During this time period lot of churches had their ceiling painted by renaissance artist. Renaissance painters of passion and love for the arts. Venetian painting is filled with the soft, muted, reflected light one sees in Venice. Venetian painting seemed to have more emotion and feelings in the painting, then late renaissance period painting. Examples; Paris Bordone Allegory of Mars and Jocope Robusti Tintoretto.
    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier, the roles of men are; not to praise himself unshamefully and out of reason and not to crake and boast of his acts and good qualities. The book also states that women must be well born and of a good house and have a good grace in all her doings.

  3. Tammy Hurt

    Describe the status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy. The status of women did not improve appreciably, more were educated than ever before. Many ended up behind the walls of a convent, however, if their parents could not afford the costly dowry expected of an upper-class bride. The few upper-class women with an independent role in society were those who had been widowed young. The women at the ducal courts who exercised any political influence did so because of their family alliances. Most women who tried to exercise real power, however, found it unattainable.
    Describe the Venetian school of Renaissance painting. It was dedicated to exploring the effects of light and air and re-creating the sensuous effects of textured surfaces, was eventually to play a major role in the history of painting in Italy and the West. It was founded by Giovanni Bellini, a member of a dynasty of painters, the Venetian school began its rise to greatness. It was a center of Renaissance art comparable to Florence and Rome.
    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier , what are the roles of men and women and their social relations? Men were to be the perfect courtier or gentleman and their training should take precedence: should be proficient in education of the arts and humanities or skill in horsemanship and swordplay. The women would be the perfect court lady. In the minds of the dialogue participants, the ideal lady is a civilizing influence on men, who would otherwise be crude. The lady should be a consummate hostess, charming, witty, graceful, physically attractive, and utterly feminine. She should be well versed in the same areas as a man except for athletics and the mastery of arms. With these social attributes, the lady can then bring out the best in a courtier. She must not seem his inferior, for she contributes to society in her own way.

  4. Jimmy Combs

    Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier was written over the course of many years and is considered one of the most important Renaissance works of all time. He describes life during the Renaissance at the court of Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltro of Urbino. Castiglione gives various requirements to be considered the “perfect gentleman”. According to the book, a courtier should not only be a distinguished night, but also educated in Greek and Latin letters with the perfect touch of humor and experience in sports. One character in the book attacks the roles and perception of women but the other male characters quickly rush to defend women. They affirmed women as equals rather than subordinates.

  5. Jimmy Combs

    Females of the eary Renaissance were controlled by their parents until they were given to their husbands, who they most likely did not choose, for a continued submissive life. They were considered legally subject to their husbands and denied all political rights. Some wives of merchants were allowed to work in their husbands stores but peasant women were required to work alongside their husbands in the fields, as well as do all the housework. For the most part, women’s roles in society consisted of child-bearing, child-rearing, and being a housewife. Only a few wealthy women of high status were able to break this mold and obtain some education and freedom.

  6. Richard Robinette

    The status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy did not show much improvement from previous time. The women during this timeframe were more educated and as expected if their families were wealthy they stood a better chance in life. Most women were either married or found themselves behind the walls of a convent. Woman on occasions were invited to the courts of local rulers where men and women could discuss and exchange ideas and philosophies. Most women had limited success obtaining power during this time period; however one expectation was Lucrezia Borgia. Lucrezia Borgia was one of the most powerful women during this time period. She was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI and was married three different times at a very young age of twenty-one. She was the patron of many different artists and writers and held court in Ferrara.

  7. Richard Robinette

    The Venetian school of Renaissance painting was founded by Giovanni Bellini. Bellini was trained by his father, Jacopo Bellini who was a late Gothic painter. Bellini was always experimenting and focused his teachings on effects of light, air, and textures. He also used traditions from the Florentine and Flemish schools. Florentine schools taught linear perspective and direct observation and Flemish schools taught techniques of oil painting, how to use religious symbolism, and landscape backgrounds. Bellini perfected the landscape format as a backdrop for foreground figures.

  8. Richard Robinette

    The Book of the Courtier, by Castiglione, spoke of two separate issues. First were men and women of medieval times. Men were expected to be well educated in the arts and humanities as well as being skilled in horsemanship and swordplay. Women were to be very feminine along with being a good hostess, charming, witty, graceful, and physically attractive. Castiglione later rejected this medieval courtly love and its adulterous focus. The book next moved to the modern world. Castiglione wrote that social relations between the sexes should be a totally Platonic love. This is a spiritual passion that surpassed physical conquest. He also felt that women and men should be equals in education and every aspect of society.

  9. barbaralogsdon

    In Castiglione’s” Book of the Courtier” What are the roles of men and women and their social relations?
    What I have found to be the roles men played in Castiglione’s book is that he should have certain grace, dress for praise of others not himself. Avoid cowardice,be bold,strong and must be a warrior. He also must speak and write proper Tuscan language. He should be proficient in arts,music,and paintings. Be honest and uprightous.
    Women’s roles were to have manners,beauty was a must, womanly sweetness and grace about her actions. She should also be able to entertain,converse intelligently with a man in a manner that men were still aove women. Be clever, not to be vain, nor arrogant.
    All men and women were merely human, and shouldconduct themselves with virtuous manners.
    found this litature at: http://jzholloway.wordpress.com/2009/05/04/the-decamerom

  10. Chloe Senn

    The attitude towards women in the early times of the Renaissance was mainly prominent in change for the upper class citizens, those which controlled the wealth. For women of the lower classes the rules were roughly the same as they had been, pertaining to the fact that women were able to own land and share generally the same responsibilities as the man. For the wealthier citizens, women were seen less as people and sought of more as property. The passing of ownership began with the female’s father, and then was passed down to the husband (usually, if not always, into equally wealthy families) to which the command/control was also passed on to. Castiglione, author of The Courtier, made many points on the fact that women should be given a quality education and be able to socialize with anyone in a civilized manner, but at the same time they should be loyal and submissive to their husband. Women were encouraged to remain faithful to their husbands, even though the men were encouraged to have outer-marital relationships, and were bound to chastity until their wedding night. The option of education was offered to the upper class women at a younger age, but they were forced to give up what studies they had once they were married. Another large problem that occurred during the time period was rape of the common women. Rape was not considered a large scandal or ordeal; in fact theft was ranked a more highly punishable crime. Men suffered small jail sentences or were ordered to pay small fines. The act of rape became more of a slap on the wrist, unless the rape involved an unwed woman, or “virgin” for lack of a better term. The noblewomen began to digress during this time period, but it was a slower process still for the women of the lower classes.

  11. Beth Buechler

    During the early renaissance in Italy women were not thought of as head of household or head of anything for that matter. They did not have much education; however, they had enough to train and educate a son of theirs to become what his father was, which was head of the family business and of the house. The daughters that these women had were to become housewives just like their mothers. The painting was strictly used for trading for items that they needed such as food. It’s just like us taking money and going to buy food. Their trade, the artwork, was money to them like money to us is. Many churches in this period had their ceiling painted by the early renaissance artists. The artists put so much love and emotion into their art work. An example would be Allegory of mars. The roles of the women in Castiglione’s Book of the Courier are that they must be well born and have good grace in everything she does. The men in Castiglione’s Book of the Courier were to no praise themselves. They were not allowed to brag about what he had done.

  12. In Castiglione’s book of “The Coutier”
    The roles men played in Castiglione’s book “The Cortier” was that he should have certain grace, dress for praise of others not himself. Avoid cowardice, be bold and strong and must be a warrior. Speak and write properr Tuscan language, be proficient in arts,music,and paintings. Along with being honest and uprightious.
    Womens roles were to have manners, beauty was a must, womanly sweetness, and grace about her actions. She should also be able to entertain, converse intelligently with a man, but still realize men were above women. Be clever, not to be vain, nor arrogant.
    All men and women were merely human, and should conduct themselves with virtuous manners, whether in public or private dwellings.
    my resources came from http://jzholloway.wordpress.com/2009/05/04/the decameron

  13. Describing the women status during early Renaissance in Italy
    Opportunities for women with a high status , had the most opportunities than women of middle or lower class. High status women were allowed to study, consisting of translating and publishing books. The most powerful woman of this time was the illegitimatedaughter of Pope Alexander VI, by the time she was twenty-one married three times, holding the title of a patron of writers and artist.
    Middle class women learnt to read , mostly reading of the Bible.
    Poor families didn’t have much opportunities at all for they still had to work in the fields and take care of their families needs.

  14. Shannon Tucker

    Women were allowed to express their ideas and philosophical issues in the courts of the local rulers, along with the men. This status didn’t grow a lot but women were becoming more and more educated. If their parents were not wealthy and couldn’t afford to make them worthy of being an upper class bride, then they were sent to live in convents. Many women that had the opportunity to have say in political issues came from propionate families that had other family members in power. Lucrezia Borgia was a very powerful woman. She was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI. A lot of women seeked the same power but failed.

    2.Even during the High Renaissance period the Venetian School was kept up and together. The artists’ were influenced by Byzantine with the colors, lighting and sensual surfaces. Many painters came from this school. Two of the most influential artist were Giorgiane and Titian.

  15. Carrie Priest

    The status had not improved much in the early Renaissance in Italy. The women could exchange ideas and discuss philosophical issues on occasions. Women were educated than ever before. Many women ended up behind the walls of a convent, however, if the women’s parents could not afford the dowry expected of an upper-class bride. The women who were widowed young, which were few upper-class women, had grown an independent role in society. The women who did try to exercise real power found it unattainable.
    The Venetian school was to play a major role in the history of painting in Italy and the West. It was dedicated to explore the effects of light and air and re-creating the sensuous effects of textured surfaces. The Venetian school of Renaissance painting was founded by Giovanni Bellini. Bellini stayed true to the Byzantine-influenced tradition of sensual surfaces, rich colors, and theatrical lighting. The Venetian painters had a distinct method of brushwork. It’s rather smooth, and makes for a velvety surface texture. Bellini had the perfect landscape format as a backdrop for foreground figures.
    The Courtier was one of the most influential books of the High Renaissance. The book was written by Castiglione. The book turned away from medieval values and towards the modern world. The Courtier argued that social relations between the sexes ought to be governed by Platonic love, and women in society should be the educated equals of men. The book is composed as a dialogue. The Ideal gentlemen training should be precedence: education in the arts and humanities or skill in horsemanship and swordplay. The Courtier describes the perfect court lady. The ideal lady is a civilizing influence on men who would otherwise be crude.

  16. Sydney Hoffman

    1. Describe the status of women living in the early Renaissance in Italy.

    Women living during the early Renaissance were pretty much owned by their husband and did not have political rights. The main roles of the women were to be housewives, which consisted of taking care of the family and performing the house duties/chores, (preparing meals, laundry, gardens, etc.). Depending on the class of your family, the women’s secondary roles were either to work alongside their husband in the fields (peasant’s wife) or run their husbands businesses (middle class wives). The upper class wives also performed house duties even though most of them have servants. If you were a woman in the early Renaissance and was not married, you would usually live with a male relative performing similar tasks as those married.
    Throughout a woman’s entire life, she was somehow controlled by someone else; never having any full independence. From birth throughout childhood, a woman was controlled by her parents, and then handed off to a husband who then took the control and upper hand. The only opportunities women had at some type of independence were if she was in the upper class, but the opportunity was very rare. Although women did not have complete freedom, at this point in history they had had the most education women had ever been offered. They at least had some say in family decisions.

    Sydney Hoffman

  17. Matt Wigglesworth

    The women of the Renaissance, like women of the Middle Ages, were denied all political rights and considered legally subject to their husbands. Women of all classes were expected to perform, first and foremost, the duties of housewife. Peasant women worked in the field alongside their husbands and ran the home. The wives of middle class shop owners and merchants often helped run their husbands’ businesses as well. Even women of the highest class, though attended by servants, most often engaged in the tasks of the household, sewing, cooking, and entertaining, among others. Women who did not marry were not permitted to live independently. Instead, they lived in the households of their male relatives or, more often, joined a convent.

  18. nicole durbin

    Women during this time had a tiny bit of better educated but everything else remained the same. The women were married young and did not have a say about how they married. Their jobs were to have children, to raise the children and take care of everything in the home life for the family. Women were not given a say on anything political for were in charge of raising their sons to have a say. Some of the richer women had a contributing voice but not many were at a high rank and were still expected to be careful about everything they said. All women were suppose to be virgins until they got married, but many men were raping women at this time because this was not considered a huge crime at the time. Women are to remain faith but the men were allowed to scandalize.

    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier , he said women “must be well born and of a good house and have a good grace in all her doings”. While men were suppose to be well educatated and never praise himself for something he did not deserve.

    Nicole Durbin

  19. Amber Franzell

    Status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy did not have any improvement over the time period. If the women’s family was wealthy they had a better chance in life then the un-wealthy. Most women in this time period was married. In courts local rules men and women were able to discuss and exchange ideas and thoughts. One women that was important in this time period was Lucrezia Borgia which was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Women of course in the early Renaissance in any classes were suppose to play the major role of a housewife. This included cooking, cleaning, laundry, and preparing meals through out the day. if you was a women and was not married the women would live with a male relative and do chores similar as a housewife would. In this time period a women was controlled from birth throughout their childhood by her parents, then eventually headed off to her husband, and then he take control of her like her parents did. Although women had to listen to her parents and then their husband they never had any kind of input on anything other then some family decisions. Id say living in this time period had to be rather hard for the ladies/women being controlled and not being able to do anything but what they were told to do. Although middle class women that their husband owned their own business or shop they would help their husband run his shop/business. The upper class women could have some freedom but that rarely ever happens for anyone. Overall it has to be tough not having any freedom time for yourself!

  20. Kayla Harrell

    The status of women during the Early Renaissance in Italy didn’t change dramatically, but it did change a little bit. All women during the Early Renaissance period were supposed to be a housewife. That means women are the ones to do all the cooking, cleaning, laundry, and to stay at home. Most women during this time frame were married, and if you were not married you lived with a male relative and still did all the work a housewife would do. All women during the Early Renaissance period were controlled pretty much throughout their whole life. From birth to child hood they were raised/controlled by their parents. When they got old enough to get married, their husband would take control over them. All women had to be trustworthy, loyal, and were only allowed one husband while the guy could be total opposite of what the woman had to do. They could have more than one girlfriend at a time and not get in trouble for it. Of course, if the women’s family was wealthy, then they had a better chance in life compared to the UN wealthy. The peasant women worked in the field’s right by their husbands and still had to do all the chores a housewife had to do. One important woman during the Early Renaissance period was Lucrezia Borgia who was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI. She was forced to get married at age thirteen just so the husband could use her. Then after he was done with her, he got a divorce. I can’t imagine being a woman and living back in the Early Renaissance period in Italy. Life would be so rough and stressful. I can’t imagine being controlled by somebody from birth to death. You have no life and you can’t decide on anything for yourself. I’m glad life is not like that for women now days. It would be miserable.
    Kayla Harrell

  21. Kayla Harrell

    This school was built in the late to mid fifteenth century. Venice was an empire who controlled land. It was mainly a lot of sea coasts. Venice had the economy to support art and artists in a big way. He was able to find markets for the decorative arts that he could produce. During the Renaissance period, Venice was a Republic. This was the most important school in Italy. The communities of Venice sponsored big amounts of building and decorating for the school. The Venetian school of Renaissance paintings were founded by a guy named Giovanni Bellini. He was trained by his father; Jacopo Bellini. During this time, the school was maintained good and kept up and running. The artists were influenced with colors, lighting, and sensual surfaces. The main one is light. Venetian painters had a distinct method of brushwork; it was a rather smooth and flat surface. A lot of the paintings dealt with some kind of religious themes. Venice also helped make oil paintings popular during this time period. During this time it seems like this school was very important along with all of the artwork that was created.
    Kayla Harrell

  22. dana42

    Women during the High Renaissance era in Italy were expected to run successful households and be devoted wives. Marriage was considered a social and economic contract between families and the women have been referred to as “a sort of social glue”. Their role in the marriage was to help the man increase his family and connect with other wealthy and political families. While some women actually got the chance to be educated and discuss philosophical issues most ended up in convents. Money played a huge role in the fate of most women, the only way for them not to end up in a convent was if their family was wealthy enough to afford the costly dowry expected for an upper-class bride. The women who had any individual social and political standing in this time period were the ones who had been widowed very young and had important family alliances.

  23. Julia Pike

    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier, a gentleman is described as being a person being knowledgeable in the arts of both painting and sculpture as well as being educated in the humanities. It is also agreed that a perfect courtier should have horseman as well as swordplay skills. When reading the Book of the Courtier you also learn that in Castiglione’s view a gentleman would only be a crude person if not for the “civilizing influence” that an ideal lady has on him. He continues on by saying that a lady should be an accomplished hostess, delighting, witty, elegant, refined, pretty, and very feminine. Like a gentleman she should be knowledgeable in the arts and humanities. A lady should not be viewed as inferior to a courtier. In that way a lady brings out the best out of a courtier. Castiglione was the first one to bring forward that women should be educated in the same way men were, and on the same topics (except for sports and arms) and that the relationship between men and women should be of “Platonic love”.

  24. Julia Pike

    During the Renaissance, Venice supported the arts and artist with artisan guilds as well as elite schools dedicated to teaching the specific arts. Being a major trading place, Venice gave artists plenty of work opportunities which made their arts a sustainable career. The Venetian school of Renaissance painting was created with the help the Bellini which was a talented and influential painter of his time. The most important characteristics of the Venetian paintings is the color and light relationship, inspired by the unique light that you can see in Venice, as well as the smooth velvety texture accomplished by the brushstrokes of the artists. While searching for information about this topics I learned about the uniqueness of the light in Venice and that added to my previous knowledge of the beauty of the Carnival they have each year makes me want to save all my pennies to eventually visit and witness the magical light.

  25. Julia Pike

    The main role of women during the early Renaissance in Italy was that of a housewife, in charge of little, and having the main responsibility of raising the children.

  26. The early Renaissance female role can be characterized as household managers and loyal counterparts to their husbands. They added to the high value of family prestige by giving over cultural matters to their sons for their roles as heads of family and business and teaching their daughters to be loyal wives and household managers as they were taught. Once a young Woman reached the marrying age upper-class families would pay a handsome dowry for her to be a bride. Also, during this time they were giving opportunities, not many, to become educated although majority ended up being in convents. Those few upper-class educated women played independent roles in society, giving women an opportunity to discuss their philosophical issues.
    Civic Humanism, according to our book is defined as an Italian Renaissance ideal (simplified definition). Dedicated men and were trained in Greek and Latin classics adding to ancient Greece and Rome culture. These individuals were civil servants, establishing responsible city governments and setting up city wide health boards to deal with public health issues. These civil servants assisted with enhancing the social and moral culture of their communities by giving the health boards authority to maintain death and cause of death records, inspect food markets and supervision over hospitals, beggars and prostitutes to name a few.

  27. charletta smith

    • Women during the early renaissance in Italy were mostly all house wives who had kids and took care of them, and cleaned house; just a regular housewife. If you were high class wealthy women then you could get an education and would have some freedom, if you were poor on the other hand you most likely wasn’t going to be able to have an education. Depending on what class you were determined on what your role was, for example peasants wives would work in the fields with their husbands and the middle class women would get to run their husbands business. Most of the women were married and controlled by their husbands; if they weren’t allowed to go to the courts of the rulers and they were able to discuss ideas with the men, however women had very little success getting or having any power. They were one woman during that period of time that was powerful, Lucrezia Borgia daughter of Pope Alexander VI. She was married 3 times by the age of 21 and she was also considered a writer and an artist.
    • The Venetian school of Renaissance painting was committed to exploring the effects of light and air and recreating the rich effects of textured surfaces, and it was established by Giovanni Bellini, who was a member of the dynasty of painters. They made art work to trade for whatever they needed at the time- their art was like our money. Florentine schools taught linear perspective and direct observation and Flemish schools taught stuff like oil painting, religious symbolism, and how to landscape backgrounds. The artists there put a lot of love and emotion in their works and were influenced by Byzantine with the colors and lighting. Many of the painters came from this school. This school was a major role in the history of painting in Italy.
    • In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier, what are the roles of men and women and their social relations? The book was written over many years and was one of the most important of that time. Castiglione described life during the medieval times and the modern world. The men’s role was to be perfect gentlemen, they were to be skilled in education of arts and humanities and also educated in Greek and Latin, they were also to be accomplished in horsemanship and swordplay. The women’s roles were to be elegant in all her doings and to be the perfect lady. His definition of the perfect lady was one who was an excellent hostess, charming, witty, graceful, attractive and feminine. The lady was to bring out the best in the men. Their social relationships were to be platonic love with a spiritual passion. Castiglione felt that women and men should both be equal in education and in society.

  28. The status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy was somehow more appreciable since more had now the opportunity of an education. However the improvements on this aspect were not considerable since they were educated to be loyal wives and successful household managers while men had central and most important role on society. Only women like Lucrezia Borgia had the opportunity to go further from the time frontiers. At early age she was the patron of many artist and writers while also held court in Ferrara. But in a period in which women were not still given a place on society far from their houses it was only possible if they widowed young or due to family’s alliances like was her case. Despite of that exercise real power for women at this time was a barrier of no trespassing.
    The Venetian school of Renaissance painting rose as a rival school for the Florentine painters. The school was founded by Giovanni Bellini who made Venice a center of art comparable to Florentine and Rome. His school was dedicated to explore the light and air to create a sensuous effect and a textured aspect of surfaces that formed later an important part of the Italian and West painting. All an exit the Venetian school began its rise to greatness during the early Renaissance.
    The Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier or simple the Courtier was a courteous behavior book published in 1528 (Western humanities 344). It was written as a dialogue meant to be a guide of manners in order to become the ideal gentleman and the perfect lady. According to Castiglione the ideal gentleman had to be educated in humanities, arts, as well as in horsemanship and swordplay. On the other hand the perfect lady had to be a civilized, educated as men but they did not have to be good at athletics or either master arms. In addition to those requirements ladies had to be charming, witty, physically attractive, and completely feminine. It was important not show women inferior since they played their particular role in society. The courier also advocated for Platonic love as the governing relation between sexes to follow. Perhaps the most significantly detail or advice of the book is about women necessity of being educated on an equal to men.

  29. Nicholas Reichert

    The Book of the Courtier was considered one of the most influential books of the High Renaissance. It became a guide for courteous behavior for Europe’s upper classes. In the book, Castiglione invited company to define what the perfect courtier, or gentleman is. They couldn’t decide whether it is a man that is proficient in music, drawing and dance, or a man that is ready for war. Both sides end up agreeing that the perfect courtier is one that is skillful in both professions. The courtier describes the perfect court lady as being a civilizing influence on men. Furthermore, they should be a consummate hostess, charming, witty, graceful, physically attractive, and utterly feminine. The perfect lady should also be good at the same things as a man except for being athletic and being skilled with weapons. Castiglione thought that these social attributes in a woman could then bring out the best in a courtier. Lastly, she must not seem inferior because she contributes to society in her own way. Castiglione turned away the medieval values and led his followers into the modern world. Women were excluded from medieval universities, but Castiglione believed that women should be just as educated as men. Castiglione’s rules for civilized behavior are still being used in the present time.

  30. Christina Bigham

    Women in the Renaissance were denied of all political rights and responsibilities. Everything that they would do was based on the way that their husbands thought and how they wanted a certain thing done. The women of this time were basically housewife’s, they did the cooking, the cleaning, taking care of all household work basically, and of course if they had children that was their responsibility as well. It was kind of crazy that even the women that were high in rank helped their household staff with a variety of household chores. If this was me back in this time period I really don’t know how I would handle this because I love being independent, and the thought of me having to ask my husband to do this or that I would hate I guess I just love the free range that I have.

  31. Melissa Rogers

    Castiglione argued that the social relations between men and women ought to be governed by Platonic love– a spiritual passion surpassed by physical conquest– and thus he rejected the medieval courtly love and its adulterous focus. Secondly he he reasoned that women should be educated equals of men, thereby sweeping away the barrier that was erected when women were excluded from the medieval universities. The impact of his social rules was to keep women on a pedestal, just as courtly love had done.

  32. B. Abrams

    The role of women in the early renaissance showed some improvement in the area of education. Before this time only women that came from wealthy families were educated. In one of the schools of this time the Happy House founded by Vittorino da Feltre young people from all social classes were enrolled. He followed the ideals from Greek schools and included exercise and physical activity to his curriculum. But when it came right down to it the only reason women were educated was to be a good counterpart for men and to help educate their children. They were expected to prepare their sons and daughters for the roles they would lead in life.
    The Book of the Courtier written by Castiglione during the high renaissance was his ideals of courteous behavior. A guide to the proper way to conduct ones behavior. His ideals of proper etiquette were followed up until the 1800’s. The roles of both men and women were discussed in his book. A man was expected to be proficient in all areas including the appreciation of art and the humanities as well as in horsemanship and swordplay. Men were supposed to act in a civilized way when in the presence of women. The women had a role to play in this by the way they behaved. Their actions were supposed to bring out the best behavior in men. Castiglione based his view of the ideal court lady on the Urbino duchess Elisabetta. He was so impressed with her charming ways and with the other members of the court that he used them as inspiration for his book. The ideal woman was expected to be able to hold a mans attention. She should have been educated in all the same areas of men except of course for the swordplay and some of the athletics. She was to be feminine in looks and actions. Charming and graceful with witty humor to keep the meetings lighthearted. Of course she was supposed to be physically attractive which we all know will never change, however what was considered to be physically attractive has varied through the ages.
    The Venetian school of painting was dedicated to exploring light and air and textured surfaces. The school was founded by Giovanni Bellini. Bellini trained under his father who was a Gothic painter. He was always trying to keep up with the new trends so he used combination’s of styles. He used linear perspective and observation of nature from the Florentine style. From the Flemish style he borrowed the use of oil as a medium and landscaping for the background and the use of religious symbolism. He experimented with the range and variations in color to produce the effect of changes in light. Giorgione and Titian were among the students that studied at the Venetian school. Bellini perfected the technique of using landscape as a background.

  33. Kendra

    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier, the idea roles of men and women were explained in great detail. He said that men were to be educated in the arts and humanities and needed to be skillful in horsemanship and swordplay. Women needed to be a civilizing influence on men. She should be a consummate hostess, charming, witty, graceful, physically attractive, and utterly feminine. She should be just as educated as men and contribute to society in her own way. She should not act inferior to men.

  34. Samantha Cotton

    The status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy varied due to the class they were born into. Women who were considered as being born into a higher class had more opportunities to enhance their education and more of a likelihood to find the time and opportunity to study. Due to the invention of the printing press women who were considered Middle Class learned to read. Farm women worked on the land, women who had no servants worked in a business like as a seamstress or as a market-seller.
    Women were imposed by the limitations produced mostly by men which restricted womens lives. Due to the attitude of the church women (Eve) was the cause of original sin and man’s fall. A humanist scholar named Marsilio Ficino was famous for his belief and teachings geared toward women in a negative light. Christian teachings however; held respect for women and were elevated to their highest degree in life “the virgin Mary”.

  35. Jenna Carrico

    1.Describe the status of women during the early Renaissance in Italy.
    The status of women in the early Renaissance did not increase more than being able to now participate in education. Previously we have seen the role of women as the quiet second hand of men. Women were not allowed to have their own lives or thoughts. They were also not allowed to be the voice of the household or make any major decisions. While women served just as big of a role or bigger in everyday by being the mother and keeping the home, that was not recognized. So being that they were able to get education was a huge step for women. A majority of women became involved with convents because their family was unable to afford education but those who could, a few made their mark.
    Lucrezia Borgia was one of more successful women of this time. The women that were able to achieve some sort of power or notoriety typically had been widowed young or had family alliances in the courts they served their role in. Lucrezia was the illegitimate child of Pope Alexander VI and she held court in Ferrara. With her status, she was able to be a patron. And while she was a great example, most other women never achieved this ability to have real power or exert it. But the most important part of this time was that things were changing for women. While not leaps or bounds, being able to be educated was finally giving women the chance to be a level playing field with men.

    3.In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier , what are the roles of men and women and their social relations?
    In Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier men and women had distinct standards for how men and women should act. According to Castiglione, men should be gentlemen and women should be ladies. A gentleman should be well versed, educated and essentially a “Renaissance” man( meaning well rounded in many areas). Like a gentleman, a woman should be the ideal version of herself, being a good hostess, wife, and mother. She should be charming and witty and completely feminine. The only contrast between the sexes is that women shouldn’t be versed in athletics and the mastery of arms. Once they have achieved their goal of becoming the best version of themselves, they can then work towards their relationships towards eachother.
    Castiglione had a different view on the relations between men and women. He believed in platonic love; a passion that was not about a physical love. By taking away that aspect, men and women could learn to love eachother in a non-sexual way. He also believed women should be as educated as men are. The importance of this is that it places men and women intellectually on the same level. Women, in his opinion, should be active members in society and the only way to do so was to take the sexual appeal between the sexes and by making them equal to men. These were very optimistic ideals and the essence of the High Renaissance style.

  36. Britney Padgett

    The Courtier describes the perfect court woman lady. In the minds of the dialogue participants, the ideal lady is a civilizing influence on men, who would otherwise be crude. To that end, the perfect lady should be a consummate hostess, charming, witty, graceful, physically attractive, and utterly feminine. She ought to be well versed in the same areas as a man, except for athletics and the mastery of arms. With these social attributes, the cultivated lady can then bring out the best in a courtier. But she must not seem his inferior, for she contributes to society in her own way. Castiglione’s book turned away from medieval values and led his followers into the modern world. He argued that social relations between the sexes ought to be governed by Platonic love a spiritual passion that surpassed physical conquest and thus he rejected medieval courtly love and its adulterous focus. He reasoned that women in society should be the educated equals of men, thereby sweeping away the barrier that had been erected when women were excluded from medieval universities. The guest’s debate which aspect of the ideal gentleman’s training should take precedence: education in the arts and humanities or skill in horsemanship and swordplay. Both sides agree that the ideal courtier should be proficient in each of these areas. A sign that the Renaissance had raised the status of painting and sculpture was the group’s expectation that a gentleman be knowledgeable about both of these art forms.

  37. Melissa Kendric

    The women of the Early Renaissance were not very empowered. They were to be raised by there parents and then if and when they could get married they were subject to the rule of their husband. Their husbands were even chosen for them. If they were not married they would live with a male relative or they could join a convent and become a nun. They could not have political power and posed as a backdrop to their Husband or male relative. The wives/women of the wealthiest men may have had more to do as sewing, cooking and entertaining, but mostly the servants did that to. They were not able to partake in the arts and could only work along side their husband/ male superior.

  38. Ashlie Hood

    The status of women during the Early Renaissance didn’t change much. However, they were more educated then ever. Most of the unmarried women ended up living behind the walls of the convent. If their families were able to afford the costly dowry required to marry, then the women were married off. The only women who had any political influence were those who had well respected, upper-class families.
    The Venetian School was established because of their pronounced taste for the stylized effects and sensual surfaces. Venetian painters were creating their own artistic tradition.
    Castiglione wrote “The Courtier,” which was one of the most influential books of the High Renaissance. It was published in 1528 and was considered the bible of courteous behavior for the upper class. His attempt was to define the perfect courtier, or gentleman. It was agreed that all courtiers should be proficient in the arts, humanities, horsemanship and swordplay. The perfect lady is defined as being a civilized influence on men, she should be a consummate hostess, charming, witty, graceful, physically attractive, and utterly feminine. Well versed in the same areas as men with the exception of anything athletic or masculine. Castiglione’s book turned people away from the medieval values to the more modern values. He believed that the sexes should be governed by Platonic love which he believed to be a spiritual passion that surpassed physical conquest. He rejected medieval courtly love and it’s adulterous focus.

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