Unit IV Questions

If you have not already, please feel free to use the essay questions for Unit IV as discussion questions for your blog comments!

 

  • What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compared to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure?
  • What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why?

Thank you!

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11 Comments

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11 responses to “Unit IV Questions

  1. Samantha Cotton

    The approach baroque era scientist and philosophers took differ when compared to what someone would do today. Those practicing medicine and science during the baroque era thought the way to improve the public’s welfare was through experimentation and willingness to try things out no matter what authorities said. Nowadays there are many restrictions and compliances for individuals wanting to experiment, research and discover. Many laws must be followed during this process and is deemed highly necessary for further improvements in science. They also believed people could arrive to truths through reason rather than relying on authority of the past, religious faith or intuition more so than individuals during our time seem to. If I claimed the truth of a theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure I do not think it would be deemed very important. Either there would be others who believed in my theories or my ideas would be ignored. Our amendments allow us to have the room for expressing our thought, idea and beliefs whatever they may be as long as certain expectations of society are met.

  2. Samantha Cotton

    Basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are relatively different. Hobbes believed man needed a ruler to guide them; Locke disagreed and said there was no need for one individual to be in charge of making all the decisions. John Locke believed divine and natural law are consistent and can overlap in its content but they are not coextensive and that sensations of objects come from powers in the objects themselves. Although these two individuals have many things not in common they both thought some sort of leader was completely necessary in order for a country to flourish and thrive and that without someone as a ruler the country would not succeed or remain intact.

  3. Jenna Carrico

    ■What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compared to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure?

    One of the biggest differences between this time period and one such as baroque is the control religion and politics played. We very rarely consider the fact that we have freedom of speech and are able to assumptions and accusations without penalty. The 1600s had moved forward visibly considering previously in history women were not able to be educated and any thought that was not centered on religion or God was highly frowned upon. People believed that God was all mighty and everything was intertwined in his presence. So where is now you could make a discovery and receive notoriety, during the Baroque age if the discovery even seemed to contradict religion, that scientist risked being condemned or worse. A great example of a scientist whose discoveries changed the world yet received harsh punishment was Galileo Galilei.
    Galileo know is known as famous and monumental scientist whose views changed history. Galileo major contributions were in the celestial field. He invented the first telescope to see further into space and discovered the size of the universe to larger then previously thought. He also distinguished that the planet Jupiter had its own moons. This is important because previously it was believed that the plants revolved around Earth being the center of the universe. And while now of days these discoveries would be praised and would be viewed as a hero in his field, at that time, the church felt like he was going against their beliefs. Because of this, he was arrested and threatened with torture if he did not recant his findings. He eventually died broken and undistinguished.
    With the history being shown, I believe if today I were to make a discovery, I would be able to do so without any penalty. There are very few areas in which boundaries are made to what a person can say or do. Mostly those revolve around slander or threatening but not in religious beliefs. Today there are so many religions and not one is prominent enough to dictate the lives of everyone. Had Galileo been born in these days, at most he may have had to rival other scientist pursing the same fields but he wouldn’t have been punished for his findings. In conclusion, I believe the difference in the views from today and the Baroque time period is that today we have the opportunity of freedom not given to those then.

    What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why?

    Both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were free thinkers that along with the changing time were developing their own ideals and beliefs. Thomas Hobbes believed highly that people were naturally bad. Their only motivation is death and desire for power. Because of this reasoning, he develop a social contract that basically was an agreement that people would give up their rights and became subordinate to one ruler only. John Locke agreed with Hobbes ideas that people are violent and are in a state of disorder in nature, people must have a civil government to protect them and most importantly there must be a social contract designed to designate to whom the power is in control. However, aside from this, the two disagreed completely.
    John Locke was much more of an optimist then Hobbes. Instead of being so down on people, he believed that everyone is naturally good. With being said, they are able to govern themselves. He completely opposed the absolutist idea and instead opted for the idea of liberalism. He felt essentially that people should not be ruled and instead be allowed to rule themselves.
    When looking at both views, I would have to side with John Locke for the most part. I believe that people can be good by nature and choose to become corrupt which turns into disorder. I do not believe in absolutism because I don’t think it is far for everyone to be forced to be under one ruler with one set of rules. However, I do believe a form of government is necessary because without being governed, there would be anarchy. Our society, in my opinion, has the capability to rule themselves through a democracy and by looking at situations where there is a absolute ruler, it only brings hindrance to society as a whole.

  4. Melissa Rogers

    What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compared to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure?
    Baroque-era scientists and philosophers weren’t afraid of learning and experimenting with things to discover something new. They believed in faith and god and reasoning. They also believed that government was man created and was not the result of divine rule. The baroque-era scientists and philosophers began the concept of natural order — natural law, and mathematics was the original measures of truth. They didn’t have all the resources we have today, so for the reason of that they used astronomy, geometry, and physics to reach their conclusions; the baroque-era scientist had to be very careful when they presented those types of ideas because the findings they came to may not be traditional. If their findings were mathematically correct they were accepted and the things they rejected couldn’t be scientifically proven. Today’s scientist and philosophers still explore and experiment their ideas to further their knowledge, however they don’t base their studies on religion such as faith or god they only believe what can be proven and has a scientific explanation.

    What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why? Hobbes set forth a govenment based theory on the pessimistic view. They are driven by the fear of death and the quest for power. He also imagined what life would be like if these to natural inclinations were allowed free rein and there was no free power to control them. Hobbes described human life under these circumcustanes “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” He also thought rational human beings would recongize their miserable sitituation in a state of nature, give up on existence. Locke rejected Hobbes gloomy view of humanity. Locke taught instead that human nature is potenially good and that human beings are capable of governing themsevles. Despite there contradictory messages they had been subjected to similar influences.

  5. Scientist during the baroque era were interested in fixing practical problems. They made some of the greatest discoveries which scientist have been expanding on and using for years. During the baroque age scientist faced many problems from religious officials who banned some of their discoveries saying it went against religious beliefs. Scientist also started using mathematical equations to solve problems instead of no evidence. If someone in today’s science world tried to propose an idea without support they wouldn’t be taken seriously, and disregarded. Ideas and hypothesis without evidence, and proof are not taken serious, even though we all have the right to.

  6. Julia Pike

    ~What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compared to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure?
    Scientists and philosophers of our time rely a lot more on experiments, researches, and proofs than did scientists and philosophers of Baroque-era. Both eras have relied on mathematics to determine the truth of things. Religion and belief in God has always been a part that give scientists and philosophers a hard time because it is faith based and cannot be explained or proven by mathematical calculations, scientific experiments, or philosophical opinions. While religion is still a big part of most people’s lives today, the separation of the church and the state gave scientists and philosophers of our time the freedom to explore their domain apart from religion. With today’s freedom of speech and belief, a scientist or a philosopher would be able to claim a “truth” without the support of the state. Baroque-era also deferred from our time in the fact that their science and thoughts had medieval heritage and were sometimes built upon superstitious and mystical beliefs.

    ~What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why?
    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both lived through the English civil war. The both of them found that human life is cruel and chaotic. They also believed that humans have to form governments to protect themselves. Even though they grew up in the same environment, their view of how life should be and how the human race works diverged immensely. Hobbes was the creator of the school of Absolutism. He believed that everything can be explained by mechanistic and that humans are driven by fear of death and search for power. He also believed that one man should be in power and that everyone else should surrender all their possessions and obey that one man. On the other hand Locke claimed that humans are good and can govern themselves. He did not agree with Hobbes’ views and believed that the people should choose a man in charge of protecting their rights. Locke founded the school of Liberalism. I agree with Locke’s idea, I don’t think that anything good would come out of having only one man in power and believe that this is why so many countries have chosen to get rid of their monarchy.

  7. Kendra

    The baroque-era scientists and philosophers took a very different approach than that of modern-age scientist and philosophers. Baroque-era scientists weren’t afraid to take risks or experiment. Before the baroque era, religion played a major role in society. There were very few secular aspects of society. The baroque era changed that. Philosophers started studying secular ideas during the second half of the century. Even though scientist and philosophers were getting more adventurous, they still had to prove their theories and ideas very thoroughly.
    Today your idea must be accepted by the central power structure. If someone’s idea or theory is very far outside of the norm, it will be shot down immediately. I believe that it is much easier to get your idea accepted now as long as it’s considered norm. Especially in the U.S., where there are many different belief systems, there will almost always be a group of people who accept your theory.

    Both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke concentrated their work on society and government. They both witnessed the English civil war and adapted ideas from new science. They both published works describing the type of government they thought would be effective because they believed that humans must form civil governments to protect themselves. Thomas Hobbs wanted to synthesize a universal philosophy founded on a geometric design. Hobbes believed in the theory of absolutism. He took on the pessimistic view that people are driven by two forces; the fear of death and the quest for power. He described human life as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” Hobbes’ ideal government included a social contract that gave power to the ruler.
    John Locke rejected Hobbes’ pessimistic view of society and his theory of absolutism. He thought that human nature was good and he was considered part of the school of liberalism. Locke believed in the theory of government by the people. He said that people should elect rulers to protect their rights and that they should have the right to revolt if the rulers become too powerful. Locke also described the human mind as a blank tablet.
    I definitely agree with Locke’s theory of government. People should always have the right to elect their rulers. I also agree with Locke’s theory that the human mind is blank upon birth. I disagree with Hobbs’ theory that people are only driven by those two forces. Granted some people are, but there are also genuinely good and nice people.

  8. Britney Padgett

    What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compared to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved of by the contemporary power structure?
    A major factor that makes the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took different compared to the approach present day philosophers take would be the political religious systems of the times. Baroque-era scientists were able to experiment and think freely but were not allowed to express all their ideas. They believed in faith and god. Religion was so dominant in that time period if they were to speak of an idea that defied religion they would have been punished. In today’s society philosophers have a lot more technology and have no religious boundaries. Philosophers are allowed to speak freely and proclaim they do not have faith or believe in God. Also the technologies of today are vastly different from those in the baroque-era so philosophers know more about our world and are able to make more justified claims. There are many people in today’s society who have claimed the truth of some theory that was not approved by the contemporary power structure. Others may look at them a little differently and consider them a little crazy but they are not punished by our laws such as those philosophers would have been in the baroque-era. Today’s society has so much more freedom of speech.
    What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why?
    Despite their contradictory messages, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke had been subjected to similar influences. Both adapted ideas from the new science, witnessed the English civil war, and sought safety on the Continent because of their political views.
    Thomas Hobbes believed that everything, including human beings and their social acts, could be explained by using mechanistic, natural laws to describe various states of motion or movement. He set forth a theory of government based on the pessimistic view that individuals are driven by two basic forces, the fear of death and the quest for power. He imagined what life would be like if these two natural inclinations were allowed free rein and there were no supreme power to control them. He described human life under these circumstances as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” He thought that rational human beings would recognize their miserable situation in a state of nature, give up such an existence, and form a civil society under the rule of one man. First step to create a civil society was to draw up a social contract between the ruler and the subjects. The subjects surrendered all their claims to sovereignty and bestowed absolute power on the ruler. The sovereign’s commands were to be carried out by all those under him, including the religious and civic leaders. Always prepared for war, the sovereign would keep peace at home and protect the land from its enemies abroad. Hobbes made no distinction between the ruler of a monarchy and the head of a commonwealth, for he was less concerned with the form of government that with the need to hold in check destructive human impulses.
    John Locke repudiated absolutism and advocated a theory of government by the people. He refuted the divine right of kings, and he laid out the model for rule by the people. Locke described the origins, characteristics, and purpose of the ideal political system a government limited by laws, subject to the will of its citizens, and existing to protect life and property. Locke shared some of Hobbe’s ideas: humans possess reason, human life is violent and disorderly in the state of nature, human beings must form civil governments to protect themselves, and a social contract is the necessary basis of civil society. But Locke believed that basic rights, including life and property, exist in the state of nature. He also believed that human beings are fundamentally decent, law abiding, and slow to want change. From these principles he concluded that human beings would contract together to create a limited government that had no other purpose than the protection of the basic natural rights of life and property.

  9. ****During the baroque era many scientists were busy expanding their knowledge of science, astronomy, physics and mathematics. The primary methods used to retrieve this new knowledge consisted of observation, logic and experimentation. Without these methods scientists would have most likely missed their chance at making some of the greatest scientific discoveries that this world has ever seen. This era was a time of great change which was kind of ironic because most people during that time rejected change. One thing that did not change during this time was the reliance on mathematics to either prove or abolish a theory. Mathematics along with experimentation was a new approach to science during the baroque period. One of the most famous users of this new approach was Galileo Galilei. As stated before, mathematics was an important tool for validating answers, many scientists (such as Galilei) accepted only what could be proven mathematically and rejected what could not.
    With the invention of the telescope in 1609 Galileo un-earthed several new astronomical discoveries, most of which completely shattered Aristotle’s geocentric theory that the universe is earth centered, and replaced it with the notion that the universe was instead centered around the sun. His persistence in investigating and testing natural laws laid the basis for the modern experimental method, which is based on conducting tests and observing results. Prior to this innovation, scientific theory was based purely on suggestion and assumption. Galileo’s new revelations of the universe turned out to be a threat by the Roman Catholic Church who condemned his views and requested that he be tried by the Inquisition, as a result of this Galileo was eventually arrested and forced to sign a document stating that he rejected his earlier beliefs of the sun being the central object of the universe. This just goes to show how powerful the religious and political system was back then. However it was proclaimed by some (mainly political philosophers) that the governments were not the result of divine rule but that they were the creation of humans and their deeds instead.
    I think the approach that scientists use today is based on, if not the same approach that baroque scientists used. I think they all ultimately had/have the same goals and ambitions in mind, which is to make advancements and continue to expand the field of science. Furthermore, I think that if I were to claim truth in an unapproved theory that there would not be any consequences because of it. The world has changed drastically since the baroque era, it is no longer a crime punishable by law to believe in something that is not approved by the contemporary power structure. This is the age of free speech and thought, many great things sometimes start off as a crazy idea or belief and can sometimes even branch out from a weird experiment, and these days it is important to let out the creative side because who knows what can develop from it.
    ****Thomas Hobbes and John Locke at one point in each of their lives were both subjected to similar influences; however both had radically different views about politics and people.
    Hobbes was a pessimist who sometimes had a dark and miserable view of humanity. He was completely convinced that humanity was full of egocentric individuals who were driven by the fear of death as well as the quest for power. Hobbes was devoted to the theory of absolutism and the need to control destructive human impulses.
    John Locke however, strongly disagreed with Hobbes and his dream of absolutism. Locke was a liberalist who advocated a theory of the government being under the control of the people. He believed that the nature of humans was potentially good and that they were capable of governing themselves. Not only was he convinced that humans were fundamentally decent and law abiding but he also believed that the human mind was a blank tablet that recorded all human experiences so it could form abstract concepts and generalizations to help them survive and progress in life.
    Hobbes and Locke for the most part appear to be pretty different, but the truth is that there are a few ideas that they both agree on, such as that humans posses reason, human life is violent and disorderly in the state of nature, humans must form civil governments to protect themselves and that a social contract is imperative to having a civil society.
    I think I would have to agree with John Locke’s theory of government. I think it is the people’s right to decide how their lives should be ran. I don’t see why Hobbes believes that it is so farfetched for society to know what’s best for them as a whole.

  10. yaselm

     What was different about the approach baroque-era scientists and philosophers took compare to what someone would do today? Consider the political-religious system of the time. What do you think would happen today if you claimed the truth of some theory that was
    The difference that this scientist and philosophers approach is that they all lived in an age that was the key to many question to the human reason and to natural world. They made finding and set starting point in science that even today are follow some of their best approaches. They went over their system resolving a series of matters even getting in trouble with the religious time in which they lived. Today this is different but it will be harder to get to a new theory, ity will have to be clear, and have hundreds of proves since today it looks that from scientist like Newtown, Galileo everything have been solve, from inertia to mathematics.
    What are the basic points of the theories of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? What do they have in common, and on what points do they radically differ? Which of their ideas do you agree with, and why?
    The theory of Hobbes and Lucke had similar theory when they believed that war should be avoided. Hobbes seemed to believe more in that people will cause it at some point but on the other hand Lucke gave more credit to the human reason and advocates that people will only fight for it is necessary, but war is not desired on a different case.
    Discuss the major changes to England in the seventeenth century
    Many were the changes during this age. The English war had place during this time carrying with it change to the rest of the areas of life. During this time Charles was assassinated.
    How would you describe classical baroque?
    The classical baroque appeared by 1600 in Rome. It was commanded by the Roman Catholic Church. This style shaped the age taste for art, painting, decoration, and architecture. A monumental expression of the grandiosity of the baroque was the palace of Versailles, more explicit the Hall of Mirrors. Every aspect that baroque covered had a secular focus identifying everything with absolutism.

  11. Nicole Durbin

    There are many differences in today’s society compared to the baroque era. One of the large ones being how science is viewed and how much stress and watch is put on the people who do it. During the Baroque era they had built on many different theories that they had discovered but were not allowed to share them because they were told by the government that it went against their religion because at this time there was only one right religion. In today’s society we have the freedom of speech and even without government support you can give your theory but many people just may not believe it without evidence. Today we relay a lot on evidence which is why depending on what religious aspects you use so people will still agree and others may not, if it does not go along with their religion. I think if I claimed a theory of truth today many people may not take me serious because of my age, education level and background I would not be taken seriously, but if a well-known religious leader or scientists did that there is a good chance people may go along with it. That is how many different religions have come about. Just the belief that something happened and just built many stories off of it to go along with the theory.

    Hobbes and Locke both wanted well for the world but had different ideas on how to get to a better world. Hobbes believes that the only motivator in life was power and death. And for that reason he thought everyone should give everything to the leader and only do what told because they way they cannot be motivated by power anymore but that the power (ruler) tells them what they must do. On the other hand Locke thought we need to control ourselves. Locke believed we were blank plates that choose out own path and that we should have the right to kick the power (ruler) out If they become too powerful and controlling. I would agree with Locke because I believe that everyone can make their own decisions and that’s how we decide what motivates us and if we are good or bad people.

    Nicole Durbin

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