Unit V Essay & Discussion Questions

  • Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas.
  • What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau?
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44 responses to “Unit V Essay & Discussion Questions

  1. Susie McReynolds

    When I first learned about Transcendentalism in late high school, I will admit that I couldn’t really understand it. I couldn’t understand how Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Warren Emerson earned the name Transcendentalists. I couldn’t figure out what the central idea was that held all those authors and poets and philosophers together. The Transcendentalists can be understood in one sense by their context — by what they were rebelling against, what they saw as the current situation and therefore as what they were trying to be different from. You could assume that Transcendentalists come from a well educated background from people that were alive before the American Civil War. These people, mostly New Englanders, mostly around Boston, were attempting to create a uniquely American body of literature. It was already decades since the Americans had won independence from England. Now, these people believed, it was time for literary independence. And so they deliberately went about creating literature, essays, novels, philosophy, poetry, and other writing that were clearly different from anything from England, France, Germany, or any other European nation. Another way to look at the Transcendentalists is to see them as a generation of people struggling to define spirituality and religion (our words, not necessarily theirs) in a way that took into account the new understandings their age made available. The transcendentalists varied in their interpretations of the practical aims of will. Some among the group linked it with utopian social change; Brownson it with early socialism while others considered it an exclusively individualist and idealist project. Emerson believed the latter. In his 1842 lecture “The Transcendentalists ”, Emerson suggested that the goal of a purely transcendental outlook on life was impossible to attain in practice: You will see by this sketch that there is no such thing as a transcendental party; that there is no pure transcendentalist; that we know of no one but prophets and heralds of such a philosophy; that all who by strong bias of nature have leaned to the spiritual side in doctrine, have stopped short of their goal. We have had many harbingers and forerunners; but of a purely spiritual life, history has afforded no example. I mean, we have yet no man who has leaned entirely on his character, and eaten angels’ food; who, trusting to his sentiments, found life made of miracles; who, working for universal aims, found himself fed, he knew not how; clothed, sheltered, and weaponed, he knew not how, and yet it was done by his own hands. … Shall we say, then, that transcendentalism is the Saturnalia or excess of Faith; the presentiment of a faith proper to man in his integrity, excessive only when his imperfect obedience hinders the satisfaction of his wish. Thoreau in Walden poke of the Transcendentalists debt to Vedic thought directly.
    In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavat Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions. I lay down the book and go to my well for water, and lo! there I meet the servant of the Brahmin, priest of Brahma, and Vishnu and Indra, who still sits in his temple on the Ganges reading the Vedas, or dwells at the root of a tree with his crust and water-jug. I meet his servant come to draw water for his master, and our buckets as it were grate together in the same well. The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges

  2. Nietzsche’s believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. He f forecast the appearance of a few Ubermenschen, or supermen, who had the “will to power” the primeval urge to live beyond the herd and its debased values. He praised these supermen for living “beyond good and evil,” for refusing to be bound by society’s rules and mores. His radical thinking, notably in affirming that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention, has touched nearly every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. The Nazis used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. He invented a new way of thinkingabout human nature that profoundly affected Western society. He stated that each person is composed of an id, a superego, and an ego. The id is the source of primiutive, instinctual drives and desires, notably sex and aggression. His greatest acheivement was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought, which includes (1) a procedure for investigating the mind’s processes that are otherwise unavailable, (2) a method, based on that investigation, for treating mental disorders, and (3) a body of psychological data ob tained from these studies, which collectively establish a new scientific discipline.

  3. Transcendentalism was when Romanticism reached a milestone with the American history and philosophical movement which was critical of formal religions and drew inspiration from the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of mediation. Unlike the God of traditional religion, the divine spirit (transcendence) manifests itself in many forms including the physical universe, all constructive practical activity, all great cultural achievements, and all types of spiritual expression. Henry David Thoreau wrote “Walden” the lyrical journal of the months he spent living in the rough on the Walden Pond, is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement. Thoreau’s On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, an essay on the necessity of disobeying an unjust law, was on e of the texts that inspired Martin Luther King, Jr’s protests of the 1950’s and 1960’s against the United States segregated social system. Transcendentalism is an American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson. Other important transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Amos Bronson Alcott, Frederic Henry Hedge, and Theodore Parker. Stimulated by English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, and the skepticism of Hume, the transcendentalists operated with the sense that a new era was at hand. They were critics of their contemporary society for its unthinking conformity, and urged that each person find,” in Emerson’s words, “an original relation to the universe.” By the 1840s they, along with other transcendentalists, were engaged in the social experiments of Brook Farm, Fruitlands, and Walden; and, by the 1850s in an increasingly urgent critique of American slavery. Transcendentalism first arose among the liberal New England Congregationalists, who departed from orthodox Calvinism in two respects: they believed in the importance and efficacy of human striving, as opposed to the bleaker Puritan picture of complete and inescapable human depravity; and they emphasized the unity rather than the “Trinity” of God.

  4. Peggy Reynolds

    1. The modernist movement which was also described as the culture revolution against the principles, traditions, and ideas of Age of Enlightenment. Freud founded psychoanalytic theories in the scientific study that helped proceed to shape many modernist ideas. Freud is the most widely know for his theories are analysis of human consciousness. Freud was also a medical doctor who specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders or neuroses. Nietzche attached the conventional options of his day. He did not believe in social reform, he hated the government and universal suffrage. He also hated liberals, conservatives, communists, and socialists. Nietzche attached Christianity hid did so because it gave a man a sick soul. Nietzche went around telling people that “God was Dead.” He had to overcome socialism, democracy, trade, unionism, process, enlightenment and other ills consistent with western civilization. Nietzche is now know as “philosophizing with a hammer.” Freud and Nietzche works created a great cultural revolution which we call modernism.
    2. According to dictonary.com Transcendental philosophy is any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson. Transcendentatlism was a movenment for religious renewal, literary innivation, and social transforamtion. Henrey David Thoreau the Transcendentalist started to share his thoughs threw writing. Some of his work includes Cape Code 1965, Civil Discedience 1849, Life without Principle 1963, and Salvery in Massachusetts 1854. A great quote from Herney Daivid Thoreau is “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.” from his book Civil Disobedience.

  5. Nietzsche was a German philosopher who is known as a profit for modernism and his harsh thought. He rejected middle class ideas and believed in a new humanity that glorified human life, creativity and individual heroism. His notability in upholding that civilization nothing more than a human invention has touched every phase of modern thought, like philosophy, literary criticism and psychology. Nietzsche’s adoration of individualism was especially powerful to artists, writers, and musicians.
    Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further studies into one ’s self. Freud argued that human personality is the struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. Freud affected the ideas of psychology by founding the psychoanalysis school of thought to investigate and study the minds processes and a body of psychological data which collectively established a new scientific discipline.
    Freud and Nietzsche affected art by because it changed to reflect the natural world be rooted in the artists inner visions, the arts became abstract.

    Transcendentalism was an American literary and philosophical movement which started in New England in the 1800”s and gained motivation from the belief that spirituality is possible without the need of mediation. The spirit (Transcendence) changes into many forms, physical, spiritual, and environmental. This inspired Henry David Thoreau’s work Walden, which was a journal of the months he lived in the rough, the wilderness on Walden Pond.

  6. Keeley Browning

    Transcendentalism is an American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson.
    Through Henry’s writings he was able to impact his beliefs on how people should live in order to transcend the current world. By living simple and and without many material goods, a person can be in the world, but not of the world. Henry became one of the leading influences of the transcendentalist movements.

  7. Carrie Priest

    Fredrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), a German, was a prophet of modernism and was a notorious for his corrosive thoughts. “He saw beyond optimism of his times and correctly predicted the general disaster, both moral and material, that would afflict Western culture in the twentieth century” (pg570). He rejected middle class and Judeo-Christian ideals, and he believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and person heroism. His radical thinking has touched almost every phase of modern thought (religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology). In the 1930’s, the Nazis used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. He is a huge influence on artist, writers, and musicians.
    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), an Austrian, was a neurologist who invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. He offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. “Freud argued that the human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drive and social reality” (pg 570). Each psyche was composed of an id, a superego, and ego according to Freud. The id is the source of primitive, superego was the willing of society internalized as the conscience. The ego stands for the conscious public face that emerges from the conflict inborn instincts and the conscience and acts as the balancing component that establishes inner resolution. The founding of psychoanalysis was his greatest achievement. Psychoanalysis consist of (1) a procedure for investigating the mind’s process that are otherwise unavailable, (2) a method, based on investigation, for treating mental disorders, and (3) a body of psychological data obtained from these studies. He also studied his patients’ dreams. Freud and his former associate Carl Jung both agreed the conscious mind is only a very small part of individual personality. However, that about the only thing they agreed on. Still today in Western culture, his influence is pervasive.
    Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud both gave new directions in philosophy and psychology. They helped fostered the growth of modernism, and undercut cherished Western beliefs that dateds from the Enlightenment.
    According to “The Western Humanities” book, transcendentalism is a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical and intuition over empiricism. When Romanticism reached a milestone with the American literary is when transcendentalism became know. Transcendentalism was most popular in New England during the early and mid-ninetieth century. The main belief identified God or the divine spirits with nature. David Thoreau (1817-1862), a transcendentalist, was more than likely the most influential. The essay on necessity of disobeying an unjust law called On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (1849) was actually a text that inspired Martin Luther King Jr. protest of the 1950’s and 1960’s against the United Sates segregated social system. However, the book Walden (1854) was his most famous book. Walden was about the lyrical journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond. It also is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement.
    All of the following information was found in “The Western Humanities book either on page 543, 546 or 570.)

  8. Stephanie Castle

    1. Nietzsche influenced the modernist movement because of his extreme dislike of the “ism’s” in our societies that had previously shaped our ideals and behaviors. He criticized traditional thought and the natural order of things. He detested the scientific frame of mind. He believed in the concept of a “superman” whereby a man can create his own morality based on human instincts, drive and will. Through making individualism the ideal and demonstrating contempt for highly organized governments or societal groups, known as “herds” to him, he succeeded in providing intellectual and creative stimulus to the artists of what would later become known as the modernist movement. Artists began moving away from realism and natural form paintings by moving toward abstract artwork. Some artists who demonstrate this include Picasso, Cezanne, Matisse and Kandinsky. Cubism was a style of Western art that characterizes the modern art form by using geometric structure of regular forms and objects and then overlaying them with other geometric shapes to create an abstract or non-representational picture.

    Freud’s achievements in the area of psychology influenced modernists by focusing on the ability to liberate people from habits, behavior or ideas that were considered to be damaging. His concepts were so radical and new that it helped to usher in a flood of new thought about self-actualization. His discovery of the ability to psychoanalyze and consider one’s own id, ego and superego were in line with Nietzsche’s idealization of the Individualism that he believed should be our focus. The modernism that inhabited the minds of society through philosophy, art and literature, which is in part due to people like Nietzsche and Freud, can explain why secularism gained ground. After all, according to Nietzsche, “God is Dead”.

    2. Transcendentalism as defined by a dictionary is “an idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1836 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were central figures.”

    Henry David Thoreau was a New Englander who chose to try and experience divinity through his months of living in a natural state or “in the rough” at Walden Pond. He wrote his great literary achievement titled, Walden, during those many months. Thoreau and other transcendentalists, like Ralph Waldo Emerson, were highly educated individuals who were rebelling against the traditional views of the previous age, relating mostly to religion and spirituality. They questioned the rationale of the older traditional religions. Because of the new age they were living in that was bringing forth ideas of some German thinkers, like Kant, it allowed them an opportunity to examine spirituality and inspire them to believe that an individual could access the divine state without an intermediary and that the physical properties of our world were divine in and of themselves. They were able to transcend the traditional form of religion and inspire a new way of thinking.

  9. Brittany Wilkerson

    1.) The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, a prophet of modernism, was notorious for his corrosive thought. Nietzsche believed that the philosophies of the past were all false because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He rejected middle-class and Judeo-Christian ideals. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. His radical thinking has touched nearly every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists,
    writers, and musicians. For example in philosophy, “authenticity” became the ultimate human goal: to confront death and to strive for genuine creativity- a typical German philosophical attitude shared with Goethe and Nietzsche. Another example is the film “Triumph of the Will” by Leni Riefenstahl. The film’s title was Hitler’s own term, reflecting his borrowing from Nietzsche’s philosophy.
    Sigmund Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. Freud’s analysis of the human mind challenged the Enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully rational. Freud argued that human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. One of Freud’s greatest achievements was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought. An example of Freud’s influence on painting was surrealism(pictorial art). Inspired by Freud’s teaching that the human mind conceals hidden depths, the surrealist wanted to create a vision of reality that also included the truths harbored in the unconscious.
    2.) According to the text, transcendentalism was a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early- and mid-nineteenth-century New England. Of the transcendentalists, Henry David Thoreau was probably the most influential. His most celebrated book, “Walden”, the lyrical journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond, is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement. His essay, ” On the Duty of Civil Disobedience”, was one of the texts that inspired Martin Luther King Jr.’s protests of the 1950s and 1960s against the United States’ segregated social system.

  10. Jimmy Combs

    “Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the New England region of the United States as a protest against the generald state of culture and society, in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists core beliefs was the inherent goodness of bothe man and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions (particularly organized religion and political parties) ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that man is at his best when truly ‘self-reliant’ and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism). Henry David Thoreau was a prominent figure in the transcendalist movement, which presented new ideas in culture and literature. Through his work, Thoreau was able to express his own belief in the movement and ways in which individuals could follow this new way of thinking to “transcend” the current corrupt world in which they lived. One of his most famous quotes is “If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer”. He believed that everyone much change their current cultural and sociological belief system. Thoreau’s works, Walden and Civil Disobedience greatly influenced civil rights leaders of the future.

  11. Brittany Wilkerson

    1.) The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, a prophet of modernism, was notorious for his corrosive thought. Nietzsche believed that the philosophies of the past were all false because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He rejected middle-class and Judeo-Christian ideals. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. His radical thinking has touched nearly every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artitsts,
    writers, and musicians. For example in philosophy, “authenticity” became the ultimate human goal: to confront death and to strive for genuine creativity- a typical German philosophical attitude shared with Goethe and Nietzsche. Another example is the film “Triumph of the Will” by Leni Riefenstahl. The film’s title was Hitler’s own term, reflecting his borrowing from Nietzsche’s philosophy.
    Sigmund Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. Freud’s analysis of the human mind challenged the Enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully raional. Freud argued that human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. One of Freud’s greatest achievements was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought. An example of Freud’s influence on painting was surrealism(pictorial art). Inspired by Freud’s teaching that the human mind conceals hidden depths, the surrealist wanted to create a vision of reality that also included the truths harbored in the unconscious.
    2.) According to the text, transcendentalism was a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early- and mid-nineteenth-century New England. Of the transcendentalists, Henry David Thoreau was probably the most influential. His most celebrated book, “Walden”, the lyrical journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond, is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement. His essay, ” On the Duty of Civil Disobedience”, was one of the texts that inspired Martin Luther King Jr.’s protests of the 1950s and 1960s against the United States’ segregated social system.

  12. Jimmy Combs

    Nietzsche and Freud both challenged the current religious belief system of their day. They viewed religion as a deterrent for humans to fully express their human instincts which would allow them to lead richer, more fulfilling lives. Nietsche, for the most part, hated every political figure and had no faith in the government. He believed that life is full of irrational circumstances, including injustice, cruelty, unfairness, and uncertainty. He believed man could be saved by a new type of man known as “Superman”. He has been described a “philosophizing with a hammer”. Freud believed that science was the “sure path to knowledge”. He concentrated on the “irrational drives” and impulses of human beings. He recognized these drives a potentially dangerous ones. Freud was a medical doctor who concentrated on the treatment of psychiatric conditions. His main argument was that mental disorders were the direct result of trauma or fear experienced as a child. Both Nietzsche and Freud deviated from the Enlightenment beliefs that man was inherently good and created the cultural revolution known as “modernism”. This movement is characterized by a heightened awareness of the “self”.

  13. Beth Buechler

    I had to read this over and over before I finally somewhat understood it. It’s quite confusing in the beginning. Nietzsche, in the late 19th century, was a German philosopher who was known for the way he challenged Christianity beliefs and traditional morals. He lived from 1844-1900. He believed in life, power, and the real world of today. He was often referred as one of the first existentialist philosophers. His philosophies have influenced many people including poets, dancers, painters, novelists, sociologists, and even other philosophers. The writing that he did was “God is dead” type of writing. Sigmond Freud (1856-1939) was an Australian Neurologist. He was the one to make new explorations to study the self. A new way of thinking about human nature was all his idea. It greatly affected western culture (Humanities book page 570). Freud’s influence is big today in western culture but now his ethics are being questioned. He was one to come up with the interpretation of Dreams (1899). His greatest achievement was the finding of psychoanalysis, the school of thought. This includes learning how the minds processes work and a method for treatment of mental disorders. The modernist revolution in art did not begin until after 1871. Nietzsche was not famous until after his death. In the 1930’s the Nazis used his writing in order to justify the theory that they had of Aryan Supremacy. Freud had created the “free association” therapy (humanities book page 570) that allowed all patients to freely say whatever came to their mind. This leads to the findings of uncovered traumas that were buried deep in the patient. The random thoughts lead to the big picture. Nietzsche and Freud created today what we call modernism. According to our humanities book, Transcendentalism is a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified god or the divine spirit with nature. It was developed in the 1830-1840’s. It was based in New England. Henry David Thoreau, 1817-1862, was a poet, philosopher, and scientist. He was the most influential of the transcendentalists. Walden (1854) was his biggest celebrated book. It became very influential to leaders in civil rights later down the road in the future. It is now the bible of today’s environment movement. It influenced Henry David Thoreau because it gave him the opportunity to let the readers of his work excel into his way of thinking rather than how they already did. He thought that the people needed to change the way they think such as social beliefs as well as cultural beliefs. He thought he could make these changes through his writings.

  14. Richard Robinette

    Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud both helped in shaping the early modernist movement. Nietzsche was a radical thinker who chose to think outside of box. He rejected philosophers from earlier time periods on views about human rationality, universal moral code, and personal freedom. Nietzsche rejected middle-class and Judeo-Christian ideals and discarded views on liberalism, socialism, and Marxism. Nietzsche felt that civilization was nothing but a human invention and praised Ubermenschen or supermen who choose not live by society’s rules and mores. Nietzsche biggest gift towards the arts was his belief and uplifting of individualism. Freud was a neurologist who tried to challenge the thought that the human beings think fully rational. His influence to arts was in the field of psychology and the study of the self. He felt that human personality was an internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. His greatest accomplishment was psychoanalysis, otherwise known as a school of thought. Through his school of thought Freud was able to analyze human thoughts to help in treating people with mental disorders.

  15. Richard Robinette

    Transcendentalism was inspired by the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of mediation. This movement did not belief in the traditional God and felt that the divine spirit would appear in many forms. This would include the physical universe, constructive practical activity, all great cultural achievements, and all types of spiritual expression. This inspired Henry David Thoreau to write a book called “Walden” which was a lyrical journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond. Thoreau also wrote On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, which was an essay on the disobeying an unjust law.

  16. Sydney Hoffman

    1. Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas.
    Fredrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud influenced the modernist movement entirely. Nietzsche was a German philosopher and a “prophet of modernism”. He rejected and challenged the truth-ness of the norm, the traditional, and Christian beliefs. He disagreed with philosophers from the past about morals and freedom, and he disagreed with the middle-class life and natural order of life. Nietzsche believed that civilization was invented by the humans and that it was not the way to live. He favored the “superman” lifestyle because they chose not to live like the “civilized” humans that followed rules and morals. He agreed with this “superman” lifestyle because they created their own morals and life decisions based on instincts. Nietzsche’s philosophies have impacted arts and ideas, such as painters, writers, poets, dancers, other philosophers, and sociologists, especially individualism and abstract art. Sigmund Freud was a neurologist and the leading founder of psychoanalysis, which helped shape many modernist theories. He brought about a new way of thinking and studying one’s own self. He believed that each human has an id, superego, and ego. He studied the created theories about the human consciousness. And he believed that a person’s personality is the war between instinctual drives and social reality. Freud discovered the psychoanalysis school of thought, which involved learning how the mind processes things and analyzing human thoughts, which then led to help treat people with mental disorders. Together, Nietzche and Freud created what we call today modernism. As far as impacting arts and ideas, Nietzsche and Freud greatly influenced philosophers thinking and theories with their own (superman and psychoanalytic) and they influenced the arts like novelists, poets, painters, musicians with the rise of individualism and creating abstract art instead of the normal. It began to reflect the natural world and brought out the artist’s inner vision which allowed their pieces of work the be abstract.

    2. What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau?
    Transcendentalism is a literary, political, and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical and intuition over empiricism. This movement took place in the early nineteenth century and started in New England. Henry David Thoreau was one of the leading influences of the transcendentalism movement, and he influenced others with his writings about how people should live and believe. Transcendentalism influenced the writings of Henry David Thoreau, like in Walden, which was a journal of Thoreau’s from when he lived in the wilderness on Walden Pond. He shared his thoughts through writing books and wrote it in a way that others could follow and join in on his transcendentalism. He believed that humans were at their best when independent and completely self reliant.

    Sydney Hoffman

    • Nathan Laughlin

      It’s funny because the way that Nietzsche believed that human’s should live would honestly probably benefit humanity so much more now that the way that people currently live. Maybe if everyone tried to live that “superman” lifestyle and followed their own beliefs and instincts then people would be so much happier instead of living for the system of the government and just doing what everyone else wanted them to do. I also really enjoy the theories of Freud and how he believed that human though was a battle between instinctual thought and societal roles, because this is such a true statement even in the present day. Many of the points that you’ve made about Freud and Nietzsche are so true and remain so until this day, which just goes to show how a lot of history is totally timeless no matter how long ago it was.

  17. William Murphy

    Friedrich Nietzsche considered notorious for his corrosive thought, was known as a prophet of modernism. He correctly predicted the general disasters, both moral and material, that would afflict people in the twentieth century. Our textbook (The Western Humanities Seventh Edition) describes him as seeing beyond the optimism of his time. He said that he was the philosopher of the “perhaps”, denying moral certainty and cultivating ambiguity. He didn’t agree with the middle class and Judeo-Christian ideals identifying them with “herd” or “slave” values. For the same reason he scorned liberalism, socialism and Marxism. He said they appealed to humanities lowest common denominator and thus were destroying the Western civilization.
    There were positive, affirmative things he believed in such as a new morality that glorified human life, creativity and personal heroism.
    All these thoughts and views had a great effect on the modernist movement.

    Sigmund Freud had an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. He invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. He affected intellectuals and artist in Vienna around 1900. His analysis challenged the belief that human beings are fully rationale. Freud said the psyche, or self, is composed of three things, the id, the superego and the ego which are always at odds with each other.
    Freuds greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis. This is a process by which a person might live a freer and happier life by unraveling the roots of neurotic behavior.
    He devised “free association ” therapy which helped uncover traumas in a patients unconscious. He studied dreams because he thought they were a form of wish fulfillment, a therory he set forth in The Interpretation of Dreams. Freud also believed that the conscious mind is only a very small part of individual personality. This belief is a cornerstone of modernism.

    Trascendentalism was a literary and philisophical movement which flourished in New England in the early and middle part of the 1800s. Our text book(The Western Humanities Seventh Edition) says romanticism reached its peak during this movement.
    Transcendentalism was critical of formal religions believing instead that divinity is accessible without the necessity of mediation. Transendentalist believed that the divine spirit (transcendence) manifest itself in many forms such as the physical universe, all constructive practical activity, all great cultural achievements, and all types of spiritual expression. They followed in the footsteps of German idealist because they sought to be in union with the worlds underlying metaphysical order.
    Transcendentalism influenced the writing of Thoreau because it is harmony with the world. That is why his book Walden is virtually the bible of todays environmental movement.

  18. Steven Albrecht

    • Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas.
    The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), a prophet of modernism, was notorious for his corrosive thought. He saw beyond the optimism of his times and correctly predicted the general disasters, both moral and material, that would afflict western culture in the twentieth century. To him, the philosophies of the past were all false because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. Denying moral certainty, Nietzsche asserted that he was the philosopher of the “perhaps,” deliberately cultivation ambiguity. Nietzsche vehemently rejected middle-class and judeo-Christian ideals, the identifying them with “herd” or “slave” values. For the same reason, he heaped scorn on many of the “isms” of his day liberalism, socialism, and Marxism- claiming that they appealed to humanity’s lowest common denominator and were thus destroying western civilization. Virtually unknown when he died, Nietzsche became one of the giants of twentieth- century thought. His radical thinking– notably in affirming that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention has touched nearly every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists, writers, and musicians.

    Rather than making a blanket condemnation of human morality and behavior, the Austrian Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further exploration into the study of the self. part of the circle of intellectuals and artists who flourished in Vienna around 1900. Freud, a neurologist, invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected western society. Freud’s greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought, which includes a procedure for investigating the mind’s processes that are otherwise unavailable, a method, based on that investigation, for treating mental disorders and a body of psychological data obtained from these studies, which collectively establish a new scientific discipline. this school of thought is dedicated to the principle that once the roots of neurotic behavior are unraveled, a patient can lead a freer, healthier life.

    • What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau?
    Transcendentalism was a Philosophical movement by a group of people in the United States that happened in the 1830’s to the 1840’s. This movement was against the general state of culture and society, but more pointed at intellectualism of Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian Church thought at Harvard Divinity School. Transcendentalists believed that organized religion and political parties ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that man is at his best when truly self reliant and independent. Only this way can such real individuals form a true community. I think the influence of transcendentalism is shown best in Henry David Thoreau’s book Walden or known as Life in the woods. Thoreau immersed himself in nature hoping to gain a more objective understanding of society. This whole experiment was powered by his transcendentalist philosophy. This was hailed as virtually the bible to today’s environmental movement. By living simple and without many material goods, a person can be in the world, but not of the world. Henry became one of the leading influences of the transcendentalist movements.

  19. Shannon Tucker

    Transcendentalism is a philosophy that concentrates on the knowledge and experiences of things unknown mostly through spiritual growth. Transcendents wanted to be different from everyone else. They frequently rebelled against what others believed in. They were educated people who wrote everything from essays, literature, novels, poetry and phiosphy. Their writings stood them apart from others and their beliefs.Thoreau was influenced by transcendentalism because he agreed with the philosophy of spiritual growth through slef learning. Thoreau felt that government had no place in people’s lives. That government was at its best when there was no governing at all. He expressed in all of his written works how he felt about the government, society and culture.He wrote an autobiography detailing his experiences with nature while living on Walden Pond. This pond is located in Massachusetts. He lived on the pond from 1845 to 1847 as he wrote the book Walden. In the book he details how he feels a person should live their life. Explaining how people should be aware of their natural surroundings and learn the world of nature.
    Nietzche was known for his modernism and his hard views, he was a German philosopher. He didn’t believe in ideas as others did. He felt there was a new humanity that held life to a greater standard. Nietzsche was idealized by artist and writers. He did not agree with social reform, he was against all forms of government. He liked very few people including liberals, conservatives, communists and socialists. He disagreed with Christianity. He preached the word that “God was dead. Freud and Nietzche began a revolution called modernism.
    Freud was an Austrian neurologist who had a way of his own for figuring out and explaining the human brain. Freud came up with scientific studies that formed many modernist ides. He is most widely known for his studies on the human brain, how it works and consciousness. He believed in studying one’s own self.

  20. Nathan Laughlin

    1. Nietzsche denied all of the “isms” of his time period, saying that they appealed to humanity’s lowest class and that they were corroding Western civilization. He believed in a morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. He believed that there were certain people within a community that were called to be supermen and live beyond the stereotype and be leaders instead of followers; the typical laws of the land most certainly didn’t bind them.

    Nietzsche’s thought has influenced religion, politics, literature and psychology of modern day in many ways. Especially his focus of individualism in art, writing, and music.

    Freud was very focused on the study of one’s own self and it’s psychology which strongly affected the Western world. Freud believed that humans’ personality is the product of an internal struggle between instinct and social reality. He thought that everyone had a battle of the id, superego and the ego, and the struggle between the three can never be resolved and internal equilibrium cannot be reached. He also believed that there were varying degrees of imbalance of the three parts in a person and depending on the degree of imbalance determined if the person was “normal” or suffered from some sort of mental illness. However if one accepted their own limitations due to the struggle between these parts of themselves they would ultimately reach moral freedom and could make moral choices in full knowledge of the consequences of their actions.

    Between the two men the greatest accomplishment in modern thought was the Freud’s discovery of psychoanalysis. This school of thought is devoted to the concept that once the roots of neurotic behavior are unraveled, a patient can lead a freer, healthier life. Freud was also one of the first people to begin the analysis of dreams of his patient’s.

    2. Transcendentalism was a movement that focused on the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and the intuition over empiricism. It was focused on God as the central figure with nature; it was mainly popular in the early to mid nineteenth century in New England. Although this movement had a strong emphasis on God and his power there was not an emphasis on traditional religion and more on a divine spirit that manifested itself in many forms.

    Henry David Thoreau was the most influential transcendentalist writer of his time. Walden was his most famous work which was a journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond, which is basically he bib le of today’s environmental movement. Some of his writing also influenced Martin Luther King Jr’s protest against the United State’s segregation system. Thoreau was very focused on the disobedience of traditional law, believing that there were better and more effective ways of living one’s life.

  21. Nietzsche developed the concept of “life- Affirmation” one should find themselves during thier life. your body lets you know by illness something is off balance, sexuality is not oppsite of virtue, that you should reject caution – you live only once, you can’t love someone else if you don’t love oneself, guilt feelings need to be eradicated, except yourself as who you are, that all these things lead to good mental health
    Frued believed human individuality to be animalistic sex drive , in our sub concious mind we do things that drive us.

  22. What is transcendentalism , and how it influenced Henry David Thoreau. Based in New England , transcentalism was that they believed intuition was a betteer guide than to the truth rather than logical reason, they rebelled against the government ways. Government is man made, not God made. They believed government was more harmful than helpful, comparing the government to a machine, and that that machine produced unjustice. Thoreau was a mystic naturalist

  23. Samantha Cotton

    1) Nietzsche and Freud influenced the modernist movement greatly. Nietzsche went against conventional opinions during his time; he believed that people needed to realize that life is not always governed by rational principles. Freud’s idea that man’s actions are not always rational shocked those following the ideals of the Enlightenment. The same reaction occurred after Nietzsche made the claim “God is dead”. These philosophers attacked Christianity because it went against human reason. Nietzsche aimed to further erode the rational foundations of western civilization. Freud explored the unconsciousness of the human mind teaching further generations many concepts that are still being taught today such as; our ID and the instinctual nature of man. These philosophers rebel against the enlightenment created a cultural revolution called modernism.
    2) Transcendentalism was the early 19th century American political, literary and philosophical movement. Transcendentalist’s main belief was that institutions in society such as political parties and those that organize religion corrupted the purity of the individual and that people were at their best when they are truly independent and rely on themselves. Transcendentalism influenced the writings of Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau went to live on his own at Walden Pond in a hut the he had built himself. His goal was to live off the land and front the essential facts of life. This experience was ultimately a failure however; it did influence and inspire him for his most famous work “Walden, or Life in the woods” which was published in 1854.

    • Samantha Cotton

      1.) Sigmund Freud not only made an impact on future theories and idea’s; he also had an influence on art. Salvador Dali was a student of Sigmund Freud’s and like Freud; he believed that dreams and the brain’s imagination were central to human thought and so he painted what he saw in his dreams. One example of these types of paintings is Dream caused by the flight of a Bee (1944). Nietzsche also influenced art. Nietzsche first brought attention to the idea of The Birth of Tragedy; which ultimately gave him an understanding of the differences between the Dionysian and Apollonian forms of artistic imagination. His primary beliefs had a major impact on the visual arts of his time. His views also led to the twentieth century’s development on nonrepresentational and pure abstraction. Nietzsche’s influence on the pure abstraction led to the creation of analytic cubism by George Braque and Picasso they were also the first to experiment in abstraction.
      2.). Transcendentalist’s believed by connecting to nature and human goodness; human consciousness can emerge as well as help create new idealist philosophy. Transcendentalist’s also helped influence Mental Science’s. Henry David Thoreau was a transcendentalist because he was a philosopher of nature; studying it’s relation to the human condition. Thoreau introduced “nature walks” which is considered a progressive concept. Many of Thoreau’s writings involve natural history, natural observation, environmental history and personal experiences. He believed in species survival when exposed hostile elements because, it led to the discovery of the true essential needs of life.

  24. Amber Franzell

    Nietzsche is a German philosopher he believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. Also a prophet of modernism was notorious for his corrosive thought (page 570). His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists, writers, and musicians (page 570). Artists in his time period began moving away from realism and natural form of paintings by moving toward abstract artwork. Some artist that used this type of procured consisted of Picasso, Cezanne, Matisse and Kandinsky. Nietzsche Vehemently rejected middleclass and Jude-Christian ideals, identifying them with “herd” or “slave” values. For this reason Nietzsche did not like “isms” of his day this included liberalism, socialism, and Marxism. He also believed in a the concept of superman known as Ubermenschem, which is understood to have/ had “will power” where a man can create his own morality based on human instincts, through their own drive and will. His view on individualism was very important to artist, writer, and musicians.
    Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into study of the self (page 570). According to Freud each psyche, or self, is composed of an id, a superego and an ego. In this time Freud’s greatest achievements was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought, which dealt with investigating the mind’s process, a method for treating mental disorders, and data obtained from these studies. The modernism of society is not just through philosophy but through art and literature, which is in part to people like Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. This explains why secularism gained ground. Both Freud and Nietzsche affected art because it changed to reflect the natural world in the artist’s inner views, and made the art work become abstract compared to what they was seeing and not being as bold and abstract as what they see now. A much better view on the paintings then what is to come on the paintings views.

    Transcendentalism in the Western Humanities book glossary is defined as a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early and mid- nineteenth century New England. In Chapter eight Romanticism reached a milestone with the American literary and philosophical movement known as transcendentalism. According to the Western Humanities book Henry David Thoreau was probably the most influential (page 543). The reason this influenced Henry David was because he lived months spending his life in rough times on Walden Pond. He celebrated his book Called Walden which included the lyrical journal of the months he was on the pond living. This is virtually the bible of today’s environment movement. Over all him living in the pond for months should him how to actually believe and know what he has in life, while being on the pond and living rough for months is nothing to compared to living higher then needs.

  25. charletta smith

    1. The modernist movement which was also described as the culture revolution against the principles, traditions, and ideas of Age of Enlightenment. Nietzsche was a German philosopher who is known as a profit for modernism and his harsh thought. Nietzsche went and told people that God was dead. He had to overcome socialism, democracy, trade, unionism, process, enlightenment and other ills consistent with western civilization. Nietzsche is known as philosophizing with a hammer. His radical thinking confirmed that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention, he has touched on about every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. Nietzsche’s respect of individualism was mainly dominant to artists, writers, and musicians. Freud and Nietzsche affected art by because it changed to reflect the natural world be rooted in the artists inner visions, the arts became abstract. The Nazis used his writings to defend their theory of Aryan supremacy. Freud was a medical doctor who specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. Freud founded psychoanalytic theories in the scientific study that helped proceed to shape many modernist ideas. Freud offered a tactic to human psychology that could be used to explore into the study of the self. He invented a way of thinking about human nature that affected Western society. He hated liberals, conservatives, communists, and socialists. His greatest achievement was setting up psychoanalysis, a school of thought, which consist of a procedure for investigating the mind’s processes that are otherwise unavailable, a method based on that investigation for treating mental disorders, and a body of psychological data obtained from these studies, that together establish a new scientific discipline.
    2. Transcendentalism’s actual definition any philosophy based upon the doctrine that the principles of reality are to be discovered by the study of the processes of thought, or a philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical: in the U.S., associated with Emerson; 1795–1805. From what I know about transcendentalism it is a movement in nineteenth-century American literature and thought, It called on people to view the objects in the world as small versions of the whole universe and to trust their individual intuitions. The two most well-known American transcendentalists were Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. It is any system of philosophy that emphasizes the conditions of knowledge and experience or the unknowable character of ultimate reality or that emphasizes the transcendent as the fundamental reality, especially that of Kant. Emerson’s philosophy was emphasizes intuition as a means to knowledge or the importance of the search for the divine. While transcendentalism was an American literary it also was a philosophical movement which started in New England in the 1800’s and gained motivation from the belief that spirituality is possible without the need of mediation. This inspired Henry David Thoreau’s work “Walden”, which was a journal of the months he lived in the rough of the wilderness on Walden Pond. Through his writings he was able to impact his beliefs on how people should live in order to transcend the current world. By living simple and without many material goods, a person can be in the world, but not of the world. Henry became one of the leading influences of the transcendentalist movements. Some of his work includes Cape Code 1965, Civil Dissidence 1849, Life without Principle 1963, and Slavery in Massachusetts 1854.

  26. Nicole DUrbin

    Nietzsche seemed to be positive but negative in the same way. Negative because he rejected government and ideas of other people but positive because he believe in everyone having a sense of being a hero. He invented a “whole new person” in a sense on what he believed it should be. He used different aspects like philosophy, literary criticism and psychology. Some people allowed this to influence them while other rejected this idea. Freud on the other hand, wanted to get into the minds of people and explain why they were thinking the things they were thinking. He was very popular at this time and still is today for the study he has done on our consciouios, ego, super ego, id, and even mental illnesses. The founding of psychoanalysis was his greatest achievement. Psychoanalysis consist of ; a procedure for investigating the mind’s process that are otherwise unavailable, a method, based on investigation, for treating mental disorders, and a body of psychological data obtained from these studies. Nietzsche’s biggest accomplishment was that the Nazis used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Freud was worried about the science aspect of people, while Nietzsche was more worried about the drive, and good and bad of people. Both of this men changed how people viewed and thought of themselves which changed the way artists and musicians showed their emotions.

    Nicole Durbin

  27. Nicole Durbin

    Transcendentalism was the early 19th century American political, literary and philosophical movement. They mainly believe that organized religion and politics is bad because we should be independent and self driven. They believed you have to be self independent and strong alone before you can be part of a strong community that is well driven and operating. Because of this Henry David Thoreau to write a book called “Walden”. Walden is pretty much a journal of his thoughts and actions during a time were he was living outside by Walden’s pond. Many people believe that “Walden” the book is pretty much the bible of today’s environmental movement. I have always believed that people do the best writing when alone, with nothing and Henry Davis is a great example of this. He believed you must empty yourself of everything and then completely rebuild yourself and even your religion.

    Nicole Durbin

  28. Emily Holbrook

    We learned about the transcendentalist period while I was in high school. Transcendentalism can be defined as “a philosophical movement that developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the New England region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School.” One of the transcendentalists’ main beliefs was the inherent goodness of both man and nature. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions (mainly the organized religion and political parties) corrupted the purity of the individual. They believe that man is at its best when it is solely independent and relies only on himself. Transcendentalism was in many ways one of the first notable American intellectual movements. It was certainly one of the first to inspire succeeding generations of high class Americans, as well as many literary stars. The fundamental belief that influenced the philosophy of the transcendentalist movement was in the unity and immanence of God in the world. “The transcendentalists desired to ground their religion and philosophy in the transcendental principles: principles not based on, or falsified by, physical experience, but deriving from the inner spiritual or mental essence of the human.” The transcendentalist were largely unacquainted with German philosophy in the original and relied mostly on writings of Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Victor Cousin, Germaine de Stael, and other English and French commentators for their knowledge of it. But, they were very familiar with the English Romantics and the transcendental movement can later be described as American outgrowth of Romanticism. Another major influence was the spiritualism of Emanuel Swedenborg. Three men that came together and published frequently in their journal were a big piece of the movement: George Putnam, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Frederick Henry Hedge. These men were the founders of the “Transcendental Club” in Cambridge Massachusetts in 1836. At this time, the views of the transcendentalism beliefs varied in interpretations. Some members of the club agreed that transcendentalism was linked with utopian social change, although, another member connected it with early socialism, while many thought of it as an “exclusively individualist and idealist project.” Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote, “The Transcendentalist” which suggested the goal of a purely transcendental outlook on life was impossible to attain.
    Many people were transcendentalist but Henry David Thoreau is among the most famous. He is known best for his book Walden and his essay Civil Disobedience, and his argument piece about “individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state”. After reading an excerpt from his book Walden, I can see the direct connection between man and nature. The Transcendentalism period affected Thoreau because he believed that government had some kind of unimportant value and should be abolished. His belief of man being “self-reliant” was only furthered when he was introduced to the transcendentalism period. Thoreau’s piece, Civil Disobedience, later influences the political thoughts and actions of such notable figures such as Leo Tolstoy, Mohandas Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau

  29. Melissa

    Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), was notorious for his corrosive thoughts. At times he saw beyond the optimism of his times, he correctly predicted general disasters, both material and moral, that would have afflicted western culture in the twentieth century. The philosophies to him were all false and were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He was negative and positive at the same time. Denying moral certainty, he asserted to be the philosopher of the “perhaps,” deliberately cultivating ambiguity. Nietzsche intensely rejected middleclass and Judeo-Christian ideals, classifying them as “herd”, or “slave” values. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. He pretty much created a “new person.” He forecasted the appearance of several Ubermenschen, or supermen, with the “will to power,” praising them for living “beyond good and evil,” refusing to be bound by society’s mores and rules. He was virtually unknown when he died, but know is considered a giant of the twentieth-century thought. His radical way of thinking, notably in affirming that civilization is nothing more than an invention by humans, has touched nearly all phases of modern thought, religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. Nietzsche’s biggest accomplishment was that the Nazis used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Freud (1856-1939), his analysis on the human mind, which challenged the Enlightenment’s belief, that humans are fully rational. He argued that personality of humans is a product of intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and the social reality. Freud’s greatest achievement was the founding of the psychoanalysis. A school of thought.

    What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau? Romanticism reached a milestone with the American literary and philosophical movement known as transcendentalism. Flourishing in the 1800s, the movement was very critical of formal religions and drew the inspiration from the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of the mediation. Unlike the God of traditional religions, the divine spirit (transcendence) will manifest itself in many forms, including the physical universe, great cultural achievements, and spiritual expressions. Of the transcendentalists, Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), is probably the most influential. With his most celebrated book, Walden (1854) is the lyrical journal if his months spent living in the rough on Walden Pond, which is a virtual bible of today’s environmental movements. He believed you must vacant yourself of everything and then rebuild, even your religious views.

  30. According to Western Humanities book, the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement:
    Nietzsche was a German philosopher known as a prophet of modernism and his corrosive thought. Seeing beyond his times, he challenged the foundations of morality and Christianity, identifying them as “herd” or “slave” values expressing these views in “God is dead”, writing about the decay of religion. He refused to follow the “isms”, liberalism, socialism and Marxism, claiming they appealed to humanities lowest common factors and were destroying the Western civilization in the process. Nietzsche also believed in the idea of life affirmation, honest questioning of all doctrines, which was a new morality that glorified human life, creativity and personal heroism. He believed that a few “supermen”, who had the “will to power”, would emerge. These supermen were known as such as they lived beyond the “herd” mentality and beyond good and evil, refusing to be bound by society’s rules. Nietzsche’s work influenced the Nazi’s as they used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Nietzsche addressed every phase of modern thought, his glorification of individualism motivated artists, writers and musicians to craft their own identity through self-realization and express those ideas in their work.
    Unlike Nietzsche, Freud didn’t condemn human morality or behavior, he focused on human psychology and self-analysis, challenging the enlightenment belief that human beings were rational. According to Freud each psyche, or self is made up of 3 areas; an id, source of primitive, instinctive drives and desires (sex and aggression), a superego, conscience area, socially acquired by parents and ego, conscious self that’s displayed in public. He believed that a balance could not be reached among these components of the psyche causing an imbalance. Those individuals whose imbalance was more pronounced suffered various degrees of mental illness. If the individuals accepted these inescapable human conditions they could liberate themselves from damaging habits and thoughts, enabling them to function as morally free individuals. Freud greatest achievements was founding the psycho analysis school, school of thought, including procedures for investigating the minds process, a method based upon investigation for treating mental disorders. Obtained information from these procedures and investigations established a new scientific discipline. Also, Freud developed free association therapy and dream analysis. These great discoveries and achievements greatly influenced Western cultures view of the human mind and behavior

    According to Western Humanities book, transcendentalism was the American literary and philosophical movement during the 1800s. This movement thrived in New England and was critical of formal religions, believing that divinity was accessible without mediation. Unlike traditional religion it was believed that the divine spirit manifests itself in many forms, including the physical universe, all great cultural achievements and all types of spiritual expression; placing value upon thought and knowledge instead of manifestations alone. These fundamental beliefs of transcendentalist influenced Henry David Thoreau writings, making him the most influential of his time. His book Walden, a journal of the months he spent in the rough Walden Pond, is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement. This writing was an excellent display of him becoming one with nature (the universe), giving him the ability to contribute culturally via his writing of this experience at the pond, hence the lyrical writing being known as the bible of the environmental movement.
    :

  31. Nicholas Reichert

    1. Friedrich Nietzsche was considered a prophet of Modernism. His way of thinking went against optimism and he was notorious for corrosive thought. He predicted general moral and material disasters of his time that would afflict the Western culture. He rejected the middle-class ideals and identified them with “herd” or “slave” values. Furthermore, he scorned liberalism, socialism, and Marxism, claiming that they appeal to the lowest common denominator.
    Nietzsche was not just a pessimist in his thoughts, he also believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. He was unknown when he died, but he became one of the greats of the twentieth-century thought. Nietzsche believed that civilization is just a human invention. Also he was an extreme individualist and contemptuous of the strong German state, although the Nazi’s used his ideals to justify the Aryan Supremacy.
    Sigmund Freud studied the human psychology that further explored oneself. Also he invented a new way of thinking about human nature that affected Western society. Freud challenged the Enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully rational. His greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis, which is a type of therapy that states a patient can lead a freer, healthier life once the roots of neurotic behavior are unraveled.
    Nietzsche’s ideals had an impact on Vincent Van Gogh’s painting, which showed a mood of psychic turmoil that went hand in hand with Nietzsche’s thoughts. Nietzsche’s way of thinking is what brought on a new wave of artists that followed his ideals. This is called the Post-Impressionism, which was a rebellious style of art that was not a single style. These artists, such as, Seurat, Cezanne, Gauguin, and Van Gogh, who all had different paining styles, but all shared a common desire to push the boundaries of Impressionism. Lastly, Surrealist art was influenced by the ideals of Sigmund Freud.

    2. Transcendentalism is an American literary and philosophical movement that was critical of formal religions and political parties. Also, they drew inspiration from the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of meditation. Transcendentalist believed that the full potential of a man is when he becomes self-reliant and independent. The transcendentalists followed in the footsteps of the German Idealists.
    Henry David Thoreau is considered one of the most influential transcendentalists. He wrote Walden, which is a book about his first hand experience of living on his own on Walden Pond. He lived at Walden Pond for two years where he experienced growing his own crops, benefitting from the labor by his own hands, and how to meditate and think within nature.
    The ideals of transcendentalism are why Henry David Thoreau lived on Walden Pond to become one with nature. Furthermore, he wanted to simplify his life and become self-reliant and independent from religious and political parties. The transcendentalists’ core belief was the goodness of man and nature. There was a slavery crisis in New England in the 1840’s and 1850’s, with the transcendentalist idea engrained in Thoreau’s way of thinking, he was strongly against this crisis. This is what influenced Thoreau to write an essay called On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, which also shows that transcendentalism heavily influenced his writings. The essay is about the necessity of disobeying an unjust law, which in this case is slavery.

  32. Jenna Carrico

    1. Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas.

    During the age of early modernism, major changes were made in philosophy and psychology. Two of the front runners in this time were Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud. Modernism encased moving past previous ideals (or rejected) and focusing on the present. By breaking down each philosopher we can see the impact they made.
    Nietzsche believed highly on rejecting the ideas of previous philosophers because he felt like they based everything on absolute truths that were non-existent. Known for pessimistic and crude beliefs, he had no optimism and praised against “isms”. The term “ism” represents to Nietzsche the grouping of a belief made generally by people unaware of what they were following and thus being the lowest form of people who corrupted society. However, he did fight for what he called the “supermen” which were persons who strived for more than herd of his fellow peers. With their demoralizing actions, the supermen lived out of society’s rules since civilization was human invention. His extreme ideals affected many different humanities and philosophy. With such drastic views, his work could easily be misconstrued. A good example of his views affecting other person’s ideas was that of the Nazis. Nietzsche did not intend for his work to be used in such a manner but his poor views of society pushed the Aryan nation the Nazis urged for. But with any group of philosophers, there will always be differing opinions such with Freud.
    Freud’s look into civilization was not an overall generalization such as Nietzsche. By looking into the human psychology, deeper explanations could be made into individual actions. Freud felt that in each person was a battle of instinctual drive and social reality. In each person there is what Freud calls a “psyche”. Each psyche could be broken down into three areas: id, superego, and ego. Working between conscious and unconscious in between these three levels, human actions could be further explained. This theory brought to life that there was a constant struggle in everyone and there would never be a true peace. Depending on the degree of that struggle decided why people acted out the way they did and what mental illness they exhibit and to what level. A good example Freud made in impacting ideas was discovering what the unconscious was. He performed psychoanalysis which was a way to determine where their mind laid. In his “free association” technique, his goal was to let each individual speak freely and with no discretion so as to discover trauma or events they experienced without knowing they had. This was extremely important because previously before it was believed that people made all actions based purely in a conscious state making a huge impact on society as a whole.
    Both philosophers left their mark in their own right in modernism because both challenged the previous ideas set forth. By rejecting views believed to absolute, each philosopher gained a greater understanding of mankind and in turn, changed history through their specific impact.

    2. What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau?
    With the changing of each time came a new belief that surfaced. Transcendentalism was a movement that occurred in the beginning to mid-1800s in New England. This philosophical movement pushed for the spiritual over material and the metaphysical over physical. Going against typical religion and common belief in God, transcendentalism believed that the divine spirit could appear in many forms. These forms typically being physical like in nature, in constructive activity, in cultural achievements, and in spiritual expression. The goal was to seek union in the world’s underlying physical order. Being such a extreme and unique idea, there were many philosophers affected by this spiritual movement such as Henry David Thoreau.
    Henry David Thoreau was the most influential transcendentalist. All of his works were powerful and riveting. His work On the Duty of Civil Disobedience became such a rally cry that it influenced the protests of Martin Luther King Jr. But his most well-known work would have to be Walden. In Walden we can see how transcendentalism influenced Thoreau himself. Written before On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Thoreau wanted to experience himself what true transcendentalism was and how he could find it. To find the spirit represented in the physical world, Thoreau moved out to Walden Lake. Living there for months, he became intertwined in nature and he could experience the spiritual movement. He chronicled his findings in Walden and thus becoming the true philosopher of transcendentalist. Without experiencing this time in seclusion, he would have not been able to truly grasp it.
    I think Thoreau is a true philosopher because he experienced firsthand what he believed in. He broke himself down to the core to find his place of peace and acceptance in the transcendentalism movement. By doing this, his works were art.

  33. Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher, a prophet for modernism, and notorious for corrosive thought. He saw beyond optimism of his time and correctly predicted general disasters. According to Nietzsche, philosophies of the past were all false and because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He denied moral certainty deliberately cultivating ambiguity. He vehemently rejected middle-class and Judeo-Christian ideals, identifying them with “herd” or “slave” values. Nietzsche heaped scorn on many of the “isms” of his day (liberalism, socialism, and Marxism), claiming that they appealed to humanity’s lowest common denominator and were thus destroying Western Civilization. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists, writers, and musicians.
    Rather than making a blanket condemnation of human morality and behavior, Sigmund Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of one’s self. He invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. Freud argued that the human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. According to Freud, each person is composed of an id, a superego, and an ego. The id is the source of primitive, instinctual drives and desires, notably sex and aggression. The superego corresponds to the will of society internalized as the conscience. The ego represents the conscious public face that emerges from the conflict between the inborn instincts and the conscience and acts as the balancing component that establishes inner resolutions. Freud believed that a true lasting equilibrium among the three components of the psyche cannot be reached; the internal struggle is constant and inescapable. Those in whom the imbalance is pronounced suffer varying degrees of mental illness. Freud believed that the truth about the human condition would liberate them from damaging habits of thought and enable them to function as morally free individuals. His greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought which collectively established a new scientific discipline. This school of thought is dedicated to the principle that once the roots of neurotic behavior are unraveled, a patient can lead a freer, healthier life.
    Transcendentalism refers to the milestone that romanticism reached with American literacy and philosophical movement. This movement was considered critical of formal religions and drew inspiration from the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of mediation. The divine spirit (transcendence) manifests itself in many forms, including the physical universe, all constructive practical activity, all great cultural achievements, and all types of spiritual expression. Their goal was to unite with the worlds underlying metaphysical order. Of the transcendentalist, Henry David Thoreau was the most influential. He wrote a book called Walden, this journal talked about the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond. This book is considered the bible of today’s environmental movement. Thoreau wrote an essay called On the Duty of Civil Disobedience discussing the disobedience of an unjust law, which also was a motivational piece for Martin Luther King Jr.

  34. Kayla Harrell

    Nietzsche is a German philosopher who believed in a new morality that glorified human life, personal heroism, and creativity. He went around telling people that God was dead. Nietzsche works were published one to three decades before those of Freud’s. His thinking got him thinking that civilization is nothing more than a human invention. Mainly his respect for individualism was to musicians, artists and writers. Nietzsche was good and bad; all in the same way. He believed in everyone being a hero; that is the good (positive) way and bad because he rejected ideas from others. Freud’s greatest achievements were the founding of psychoanalysis; which is a school of thought. This school dealt with investigating the minds process and a method for treating mental disorders. Nietzsche’s biggest accomplishment was that the Nazis used his writings. Both Freud and Nietzsche affected art because it changed to reflect the natural in the artist’s views. Freud was a medical doctor who specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. He came up with a way of thinking about human nature that affected Western society. He was very popular in this time and he still is today with the things/studies he has done. Nietzsche was worried about the good and bad in people while Freud was worried about the science aspect of people. Nietzsche did not like the “isms” of this time period. He also believed there were certain people that were superman and to be leaders instead of followers.

    Transcendentalism was in the late 18th to early 19th century American political, philosophical and literary movement. This movement started in New England. Before being a part of a good community that is operated well, you must first be strong and self independent. This was first known as the mental sciences, and then later became known as the New Thought movement. The major people in this movement were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Margaret Fuller and Amos Bronson Alcott. Henry David Thoreau is considered one of the most influential transcendentalists. Transcendentalism was in many aspects the first notable American intellectual movement. It was also the first to inspire succeeding generations as well as a number of literary monuments. Henry David Thoreau wrote a book called Walden. The book consists of his thoughts and actions when he was living by the Walden Pond. He lived there for two years where he grew his own crops, how to act and think with nature, and how to work and grow his own crops. He wanted to live there and be self independent and totally on his own. This book is considered the bible of today’s movement. In the mid 1800’s there was a slavery crisis in New England. That is what influenced Henry David Thoreau’s thinking because he was totally against it. The term transcendentalism can also mean different things. It can also mean it serves as shorthand for transcendental idealism. Another meaning of this word is the classical philosophy that God transcends the manifest world.
    Kayla Harrell

  35. julia

    Freud and Nietzsche were two philosophers that were the prophets of Modernism. Freud is well known by anyone that has taken a psychology class. His new way of thinking about human nature being fully rational and in constant struggle has greatly influenced artists all around the world. His thoughts on the id, the superego, and the ego has pushed artists to analyze themselves and to paint how the felt and how they saw the world. This has lead to a style and a theme of art that is very imaginary and abstract. The rules on shapes, proportions, perspective, and colors changed and the freedom to draw and paint things in any was given. Nietzsche believed that civilization was nothing more than a human’s invention; he glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. His glorification of the individual gave artists, musicians, and writers of his time the inspiration and the courage they needed. These two philosophers had a big role in the creation of modernism.
    Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that was created as a protest against formal religions. Transcendentalists believe in the true and inherent goodness of both man and nature and that divinity shows itself in many forms. Henry David Thoreau’s writings were the most influential writings of this movement. He was influenced himself by the idea that people should live in a simple way, without material extravagance, they should be part of their environment and not try to dominate it. He wrote various journals of his personal experience, such as Walden, in which he talks about the time he spent living the simple life on Walden Pond. He also believed that a man should obey the laws if they are just but disobey the unjust laws. His writings influenced many people and among them Martin Luther King Jr.

  36. julia pike

    Freud and Nietzsche were two philosophers that were the prophets of Modernism. Freud is well known by anyone that has taken a psychology class. His new way of thinking about human nature being fully rational and in constant struggle has greatly influenced artists all around the world. His thoughts on the id, the superego, and the ego has pushed artists to analyze themselves and to paint how the felt and how they saw the world. This has lead to a style and a theme of art that is very imaginary and abstract. The rules on shapes, proportions, perspective, and colors changed and the freedom to draw and paint things in any was given. Nietzsche believed that civilization was nothing more than a human’s invention; he glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. His glorification of the individual gave artists, musicians, and writers of his time the inspiration and the courage they needed. These two philosophers had a big role in the creation of modernism.
    Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that was created as a protest against formal religions. Transcendentalists believe in the true and inherent goodness of both man and nature and that divinity shows itself in many forms. Henry David Thoreau’s writings were the most influential writings of this movement. He was influenced himself by the idea that people should live in a simple way, without material extravagance, they should be part of their environment and not try to dominate it. He wrote various journals of his personal experience, such as Walden, in which he talks about the time he spent living the simple life on Walden Pond. He also believed that a man should obey the laws if they are just but disobey the unjust laws. His writings influenced many people and among them Martin Luther King Jr.

  37. Kendra

    The modernist movement rejected both the Greco-Roman and the Judeo-Christian legacies and tried to forge a new perspective that was true to the modern secular experience. New directions in philosophy and psychology reshaped the disciplines, fostered the growth of modernism, and undercut cherished Western beliefs that dated from the Enlightenment. Two creators of these innovations were Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud.
    Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher that lived from 1844 to 1990. He was known as a prophet of modernism and was notorious for his corrosive thought. He saw beyond the optimism of his time and correctly predicted the general disasters that would afflict Western culture in the twentieth century. He believed that the philosophies of the past were false because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He was called the philosopher of the “perhaps”. Not only did he reject the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian ideals, he scorned most of the “isms” of his day because he thought that they appealed to humanity’s lowest common denominator and were destroying western culture. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. He forecast the appearance of a few supermen who had the “will to power” to live “beyond good and evil”. His radical thinking had touched nearly every phase of modern thought, including religion, philosophy literary criticism, and psychology. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists, writers, and musicians.
    Sigmund Freud was an Austrian philosopher that lived from 1856 to 1939. He invented a new way of thinking about human nature with his study of the self. His analysis of the human mind challenged the Enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully rational. He said that the human personality is the result of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality and that the struggle is constant and inescapable. He broke each psyche, or self, into three parts, the id, superego and ego. The result of an imbalanced psyche is mental illness. His greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis. This supports the belief that once the roots of neurotic behavior are unraveled, a patient can lead a freer and healthier life. He also studied dreams, which is evident in his The Interpretation of Dreams (1889).

    Transcendentalism was an American literary and philosophical movement that helped Romanticism reach a milestone. The movement flourished in New England in the early and middle 1800’s. It was critical of formal religions and drew inspiration from the belief that divinity is accessible without the necessity of mediation. The divine spirit (transcendence) manifests itself in many forms, including the physical universe, all constructive practical activity, all great cultural achievements, and all types of spiritual expression. The transcendentalists followed in the steps of the German idealists in their goal of seeking union with the world’s underlying metaphorical order.
    Henry David Thoreau was a celebrated writer of this time. His most famous book, Walden (1854), was a journal of the months he spent living in the rough on Walden Pond. The transcendental movement influenced his writings because his way of connecting with the divine spirit was through nature. Even after over a hundred years this book is virtually the bible of today’s environmental movement.

  38. Yasel. M

    Discuss the influence of Nietzsche and Freud on the modernist movement, giving specific examples of their impact on arts and ideas.
    Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud were a two personalities that influenced in a deeply way the modernism movement. Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher, a prophet of modernism who made himself notorious for his corrosive thought. In his philosophy he saw beyond the optimism of his time predicting future moral and material disasters. He refused to believe old philosophies by arguing that they were built on nonexistent principles. This argument made him the philosopher of the “perhaps”, Western Humanities. Nietzsche identified the middle-class and the Judeo-Christian ideals a herd and slaves for which he rejected their ideas. For this reason he also despised liberalism, socialism, and Marxism. He claimed that these “ism” were appealing to the lower denominator of humanity and were at the same time destroying the western civilization. Despite all his negative arguments and thoughts Nietzsche had positive points of views toward the humanity. His most positive thought was his believe on new a morality, which glorified life, creativity, personal heroism, and human life itself. Based on this ideals Nietzsche forecasted the apparition of a ”SUPERMEN”, who will have the power to live beyond the bounds of society’s rules and moralities or costumes, and for this reason he praised them. Even after his dead Nietzsche became a giant of the twenty century thoughts. Nietzsche radical’s ideas like his affirmation that civilization was not more than a human invention touched many phases of the modern thought like religion, philosophy, psychology and literary critism. Writers, musicians, and artists found stimulation on his glorification of individuals. On the other hand is the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud that differed from Nietzsche condemnation of the human’s behavior and moralities. Instead he studied human psychology, approach that will later in the study of the self. Freud was one of the intellectuals that flourished in the 1900 Vienna and that invented a way of thinking about human nature that deeply affected the Western. He challenged the Enlightenment’s belief by arguing that all human beings are fully rational and that personality itself is an internal struggle of instincts and social realities. According to him every human body or every person has an id, a superego, and an ego. To him equilibrium between these three components or psyche was not reachable because there were constantly struggling. He had hope of human freedom and believed in a morally free individual knowledgeable of his or her act’s consequence that was possible by accepting their own inescapable limitations. Freud’s greatest achievement was the foundation of psychoanalysis. Based on three steps it sought to make a patient’s life healthier and freer by unrevealing their neurotic behavior. Both Nietzsche and Freud deeply influenced the modernism movement, they influenced arts and artists on many aspect. Their ideas shaped the individualism on music and abstract art, thus making them a deep influence to the modernism movement.
    What was transcendentalism? How did it influence the writings of Henry David Thoreau?
    Transcendentalism is a movement that first appeared in New England in the eighteen hundreds. This movement was based on the premise that divinity could be reached without meditation. Differing from a religious God they Transcendentalism had its divine spirit which manifested in physical universe, in constructive practical activities, cultural achievements, and spiritual expressions as well. This movement influenced entirely Henry David Thoreau writings. Thoreau was perhaps the most influential transcendentalist writer of his time. His book Walden is one of the works influenced by this movement. Another woks that shows the influence of transcendentalism in him is On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, an essay that influenced by his beliefs led him to write about the necessity of disobey an unjust laws. This essay will inspire Martin Luther King Jr.’s. In resume transcendentalism was not just an influence to Thoreau writings it was his writings itself.

  39. dana42

    *****Modernism is defined in the book as, a late nineteenth and twentieth century cultural, artistic, and literary movement that rejected much of the past and focused on the current, the secular, and the revolutionary in search of new forms of expression; the dominant style of the twentieth century until 1970.
    Nietzsche, a prophet of modernism, was a radical thinker whose most notable idea was in the belief that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention. Nietzsche debated that even the most deeply-held ethical principles were simply creations. His ideas have touched many aspects of modern thought, i.e. religion, philosophy, literary criticism and psychology. It has even been said that his writings were used by the Nazi’s to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Nietzsche has had a major influence on Western civilization with his glorification of individualism, especially with musicians, artists, and writers.
    Freud was a neurologist who studied the mind avidly and invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. His theory of the id, ego and superego gave modernist a glimpse on how the human mind might possibly work and paved way for modern day sociology. Freud broke down human individuality to nothing more than an animalistic sex drive. His ideas of psychoanalysis as well his interpretation of dreams have heavily influenced modernist in the sense that his ideas broke down the human mind in a raw form that some found hard to comprehend but still could not shy away from. Artist’s like Salvador Dali, who happened to be a student of Freud’s, had very similar views as Freud and displayed so in their works of art. Dali, like Freud, believed that dreams and imagination were fundamental to human thought. He displayed this in his painting Dream Caused by the Flight of the Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening.

    *****Transcendentalism as defined in the book is, “a literary and philosophical movement that emphasizes the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early and mid-nineteenth century New England”. Transcendentalism to put it another way is focused more on the natural world and obtaining happiness from nature and what it has to offer as well as from within oneself, instead of material objects. Pretty much a believer of transcendentalism is one who is going to rebel against the government.
    Material objects can only offer temporary happiness and really does not portray wealth as most people, in particular the Burgesses, believed during his time. Spiritual wealth is far better and longer lasting than any material object, no matter how well it is made, can offer. Henry David Thoreau was heavily influenced by this idea, which was evident in his writings. Walden, which was written, based off of Thoreau’s personal experience of living in the wood for 2 years is a prime example of transcendentalism’s influence on him. By immersing himself in nature, Thoreau hoped to gain a more objective understanding of society through personal introspection. Thoreau also wanted to live the simple life and become self-sufficient and not be dependent on society and material things. Material things can give you a false sense of happiness and a skewed perception of reality.

  40. Dana Settle

    *****Transcendentalism as defined in the book is, “a literary and philosophical movement that emphasizes the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early and mid-nineteenth century New England”. Transcendentalism to put it another way is focused more on the natural world and obtaining happiness from nature and what it has to offer as well as from within oneself, instead of material objects. Pretty much a believer of transcendentalism is one who is going to rebel against the government.
    Material objects can only offer temporary happiness and really does not portray wealth as most people, in particular the Burgesses, believed during his time. Spiritual wealth is far better and longer lasting than any material object, no matter how well it is made, can offer. Henry David Thoreau was heavily influenced by this idea, which was evident in his writings. Walden, which was written, based off of Thoreau’s personal experience of living in the wood for 2 years is a prime example of transcendentalism’s influence on him. By immersing himself in nature, Thoreau hoped to gain a more objective understanding of society through personal introspection. Thoreau also wanted to live the simple life and become self-sufficient and not be dependent on society and material things. Material things can give you a false sense of happiness and a skewed perception of reality.

  41. Dana Settle

    *****Modernism is defined in the book as, a late nineteenth and twentieth century cultural, artistic, and literary movement that rejected much of the past and focused on the current, the secular, and the revolutionary in search of new forms of expression; the dominant style of the twentieth century until 1970.
    Nietzsche, a prophet of modernism, was a radical thinker whose most notable idea was in the belief that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention. Nietzsche debated that even the most deeply-held ethical principles were simply creations. His ideas have touched many aspects of modern thought, i.e. religion, philosophy, literary criticism and psychology. It has even been said that his writings were used by the Nazi’s to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. Nietzsche has had a major influence on Western civilization with his glorification of individualism, especially with musicians, artists, and writers.
    Freud was a neurologist who studied the mind avidly and invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. His theory of the id, ego and superego gave modernist a glimpse on how the human mind might possibly work and paved way for modern day sociology. Freud broke down human individuality to nothing more than an animalistic sex drive. His ideas of psychoanalysis as well his interpretation of dreams have heavily influenced modernist in the sense that his ideas broke down the human mind in a raw form that some found hard to comprehend but still could not shy away from. Artist’s like Salvador Dali, who happened to be a student of Freud’s, had very similar views as Freud and displayed so in their works of art. Dali, like Freud, believed that dreams and imagination were fundamental to human thought. He displayed this in his painting Dream Caused by the Flight of the Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening.

  42. Britney Padgett

    The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, a prophet of modernism, was notorious for his corrosive thought. He saw beyond the optimism of his times and correctly predicted the general disasters, both moral and material, that would afflict Western culture in the twentieth century. To him, the philosophies of the past were all false because they were built on nonexistent absolute principles. He believed in a new morality that glorified human life, creativity, and personal heroism. Nietzsche became one of the giants of the twentieth-century thought. His radical thinking notably in affirming that civilization itself is nothing more than a human invention has touched nearly every phase of modern though, including religion, philosophy, literary criticism, and psychology. His glorification of individualism was an especially powerful stimulus to artists, writes, and musicians. He was contemptuous of the strong German state, though the Nazis in the 1930s used his writings to justify their theory of Aryan supremacy. He forecast the appearance of a few supermen, who had the “will to power” the primeval urge to live beyond the herd and its debased values; he praised these supermen for living “beyond good and evil” for refusing to be bound by society’s rules and mores. Rather than making a blanket condemnation of human morality and behavior, the Austrian Sigmund Freud offered an approach to human psychology that could be used for further explorations into the study of the self. Part of the circle of intellectuals and artists who flourished in Vienna around 1900, Freud, a neurologist, invented a new way of thinking about human nature that profoundly affected Western society. Freud’s analysis of the human mind challenged the Enlightenment’s belief that human beings are fully rational. Freud argued that the human personality is the product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality. According to Freud, each psyche, or self is composed of an id, a superego, and an ego. The id is the source of primitive, instinctual drivers and desires, notably sex and aggression. The superego corresponds to the will of society internalized as the conscience. The ego represents the conscious public face that emerges from the conflict between the inborn instincts and the conscience and acts as the balancing component that establishes inner resolution. Freud’s greatest achievement was the founding of psychoanalysis, a school of thought, which includes 1) a procedure for investigating the mind’s processes that are otherwise unavailable 2) a method, based on the investigation, for treating mental disorders, and 3) a body of psychological data obtained from these studies, which collectively establish a new scientific discipline. He also studied his patients’ dreams, which he though were forms of wish fulfillment, a theory he set forth in Interpretation of Dreams (1899). Freud’s influence is pervasive today in Western culture, but critics have recently called into question not only his conclusion but his ethics as well.
    Romanticism reached a milestone with the American literary and philosophical movement known as transcendentalism. Transcendentalism was a literary and philosophical movement that emphasized the spiritual over the material, the metaphysical over the physical, and the intuition over empiricism. Its central tenet identified God or the divine spirit (transcendence) with nature; popular in early- and mid-nineteenth-century New England. In their goal of seeking union with the world’s underlying metaphysical order, the transcendentalists followed in the steps of the German idealists. Of the transcendentalists, Henry David Thoreau was probably the most influential. He was influenced by the idea that material items should not be extravagant, he appreciated the simple things in life, spiritual over material. He also was influenced by the idea that all humans should obey just laws as well as they should disobey unjust laws. His works inspired Martin Luther King Jr.’s protests and are the bible of today’s environmental movement.

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